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These advantages were not observed in the ex-gymnasts involved in the current study. The longitudinal models revealed that those individuals defined as ex-gymnasts did not possess any advantages to CSA and Z at any site of the proximal femur compared with non-gymnast controls, after adjusting for age, height, weight, vitamin D, calcium intake, physical activity, sex, and the hours of gymnastics training. These results would suggest that previous involvement in recreational gymnastics does not confer any advantages to childhood bone geometry. These conclusions, however, may be influenced by the length of time ex-gymnasts were involved in gymnastics. Greater gymnastic exposure, in either number of hours trained or years of training, have been documented to increase total and regional aBMD, suggesting a dose-response relationship between loading and bone mass.[27, 28] Given that the ex-gymnasts were involved in the recreational gymnastics training for (pQCT), in the same cohort, reported that ex-gymnasts had 5% to 11% greater adjusted cortical bone content, cortical area, and polar strength strain index at the forearm compared with non-gymnasts controls, but these variables were not significantly different at the weight-bearing tibia. Similarly, Ward and colleagues[30] compared bone strength parameters in the upper and lower limbs of young children (8 to 9 years of age) using pQCT to investigate differences between the peripheral axial skeleton of precompetitive gymnasts and age-matched controls.