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After the year 15 exam, participants were contacted every 4 months by postcard (with phone follow-up for nonresponders) to ascertain incident hip, nonspine fractures, and mortality, for a mean follow-up of 5.2 years through August 2009 (Fig. 1); >95% of these contacts were completed. Incident hip and nonspine fractures were physician-adjudicated from radiology reports; mortality was determined from death certificates. We evaluated the distribution of height loss over 15 years, with our outcomes of interest (hip fracture, nonspine fracture, and mortality), both continuously and in categories. On average, there was a mean height loss of 3.65?cm over 15 years among the 3124 women; 47 women had a height change >0?cm, and 29 (0.9%) measured >1?cm taller on repeat exam. We chose clinically meaningful categories using the distribution of height loss. The relationship between height loss and outcomes increased across height loss categories, but was greatest in women with the most height loss (>5?cm). Height loss of >5?cm was also about 2 SD of overall height change (1 SD?=?2.36?cm loss) in the analytic cohort. Moreover, 5?cm represented the top quartile of height loss (the exact 75 percentile was 4.67?cm). Hence, we used height loss >5?cm versus ��5?cm for all final analyses. Although the interaction term between height loss and incident vertebral fracture was not statistically significant (p?>?0.05) for any of our outcomes (hip fracture, nonspine fracture, or mortality), we also stratified analyses by incident vertebral fracture to illuminate any possible unexpected trends. These analyses confirmed our hypotheses that height loss is a predictor of fractures and mortality independent of incident vertebral fracture. We used Student's t tests and chi-square tests to compare means and proportions between height loss groups (Table 1). All the statistical tests that we report are two sided; the term statistically significant implies a p value