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?2a�Cc). The roots classified here as current wheat roots had the vascular anatomy characteristic of wheat seminal roots and their lateral branches (Fig.?2d�Cg), similar to those identified and classified by Watt et?al. (2008) at a nearby site. These were the only two types of roots identified in the selected subsamples, presumably because this site had been under lucerne for several years prior to planting the wheat crops each year. Below 0.6?m, roots were found mostly in pores with diameters at least twice the diameter of most roots, or in cracks in the soil, detailed as follows. Roots in cracks displayed numerous distortions along their lengths and were often flattened to some extent (Fig.?2h,i). Some roots were very strongly compressed within cracks, particularly smaller branch roots, and their internal anatomy was also compressed, although adjacent non-compressed segments of the same roots had normal anatomy (Fig.?2i). Roots were abundant in all cores from higher in the soil profile, but their density declined sharply with depth to approx. 0.6?m, at the transition to the harder subsoil (Figs?1 & 3). White, intact roots, thought to be mainly from the current wheat crop made up, on average, 39% of total roots in the upper 0.6?m declining to 13% below 1.2?m (Fig.?3b inset). Below 0.6?m, roots were much less abundant (Fig.?3a,b), and many of the 1?cm2 random samples contained no roots at all. To quantify the pattern of distribution of root-containing pores across a 1?m deep horizontal plane of approx. 105?mm2 area in the soil (Fig.?4a,b), the nearest neighbour value Rn?=?2?��?(mean NND)?��?��(total number of pores/area analysed) was calculated, where NND?=?nearest neighbour distance (Clark & Evans 1954; Diggle 1983) measured by the NND algorithm in AnalySIS FIVE. In this analysis, if Rn?=?1.0, the distribution is random, with Rn?=?2.15 indicating completely regular spacing, and Rn close to zero indicating strong clustering. Here, Rn?=?1.1 for all root-containing pores indicating that the distribution was not significantly different from random at P?=?0.01. Larger pores in the yellower soil below 0.6?m often appeared to be partially or completely filled with soil washed down from above, seen as a layer of darker, red soil lining the pore (Figs?1e & 4c), and other pores contained frass from micro- and macrofauna, insect parts, and occasionally fungi. The number of pores of all sizes decreased with depth (Fig.?5a), but pores in the largest size class (>1.0?mm diameter) were sparse at any depth, comprising 0.4�C4% of pores counted (Fig.?5b). The density of pores of 0.2�C1.0?mm diameter declined only slowly down to 1.0?m (Figs?4d & 5b), and increased as a proportion of the total from 28% above 0.6?m to 52% at 1.0?m. The smallest pores,