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2007). Consequently, CSME has been well recognized by ophthalmologists as an important indication for laser treatment. Because laser treatment is regarded as a surgical procedure, its indications are invariably stated in the ophthalmic records. Notably, the indications for each individual laser treatment episode and for each laser-treated eye were verified from ophthalmic files for all the 516 patients that had received any laser treatment. The patients had received a median of 5 (IQR 3�C7) laser treatments for the right eyes and 5 (IQR 3�C8) for left the eyes, with a total of 11 (IQR 7�C16) laser treatments. Those patients http://www.selleckchem.com/products/LY294002.html whose laser treatment was performed with the specific intent to reduce macular oedema and who had fundus photographs consistent with the CSME definition (i.e. hard exudates, microaneurysms/haemorrhages or photocoagulation burns in macular area) were considered to have CSME. Laser-treatment alone was not taken as evidence of macular oedema or PDR because severe non-proliferative retinopathy is also an indication for laser photocoagulation. In 29/242 (12%) patients, CSME was discovered at their first fundus examination by an ophthalmologist. Thus, there were no available reference http://www.selleckchem.com/products/CHIR-99021.html points for these patients before they had developed CSME. All the other patients (N?=?213) had had at least one ophthalmic examination on a median of 1.9?��?1.8?years prior to the CSME. Cross-sectional data on medication and clinical risk factors for microvascular complications were obtained using a standardized questionnaire, which was completed by the patient��s attending physician during the FinnDiane baseline visit. Blood pressure (BP) was measured twice in the sitting position using a mercury sphygmomanometer after a rest of at least 10?min. Anthropometric data, such as height, weight and waist and hip circumferences, were recorded, and blood was drawn for the laboratory measurements, including HbA1c and C-reactive protein (CRP) (Saraheimo et?al. 2003). Data on all-cause mortality were obtained until 24.3.2009 from the Population Register Centre of Finland. As a measure of insulin sensitivity, we used an equation for the estimated glucose disposal rate (eGDR) modified for use with HbA1C instead of HbA1 (eGDR = 24- 12.97?WHR - 3.39?AHT- http://www.selleck.cn/products/wortmannin.html 0.6?HbA1c), where WHR stands for waist-to-hip ratio and Anti hypertensive treatment (AHT) for antihypertensive treatment and/or blood pressure ��140/90?mmHg (yes 1, no 0) (Williams et?al. 2000). The renal status was defined based on the albumin excretion rate (AER) in at least two of three consecutive overnight or 24-hr urine collections. Patients were divided by renal status into four categories: Those with normal AER (