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2007). Consequently, CSME has been well recognized by ophthalmologists as an important indication for laser treatment. Because laser treatment is regarded as a surgical procedure, its indications are invariably stated in the ophthalmic records. Notably, the indications for each individual laser treatment episode and for each laser-treated eye were verified from ophthalmic files for all the 516 patients that had received any laser treatment. The patients had received a median of 5 (IQR 3�C7) laser treatments for the right eyes and 5 (IQR 3�C8) for left the eyes, with a total of 11 (IQR 7�C16) laser treatments. Those patients whose laser treatment was performed with the specific intent to reduce macular oedema and who had fundus photographs consistent with the CSME definition (i.e. hard exudates, microaneurysms/haemorrhages or photocoagulation burns in macular area) were considered to have CSME. Laser-treatment alone was not taken as evidence of macular oedema or PDR because severe non-proliferative retinopathy is also an indication for laser photocoagulation. In 29/242 (12%) patients, CSME was discovered at their first fundus examination by an ophthalmologist. Thus, there were no available reference points for these patients before they had developed CSME. All the other patients (N?=?213) had had at least one ophthalmic examination on a median of 1.9?��?1.8?years prior to the CSME. Cross-sectional data on medication and clinical risk factors for microvascular complications were obtained using a standardized questionnaire, which was completed by the patient��s attending physician during the FinnDiane baseline visit. Blood pressure (BP) was measured twice in the sitting position using a mercury sphygmomanometer after a rest of at least 10?min. Anthropometric data, such as height, weight and waist and hip circumferences, were recorded, and blood was drawn for the laboratory measurements, including HbA1c and C-reactive protein (CRP) (Saraheimo et?al. 2003). Data on all-cause mortality were obtained until 24.3.2009 from the Population Register Centre of Finland. As a measure of insulin sensitivity, we used an equation for the estimated glucose disposal rate (eGDR) modified for use with HbA1C instead of HbA1 (eGDR = 24- 12.97?WHR - 3.39?AHT- 0.6?HbA1c), where WHR stands for waist-to-hip ratio and Anti hypertensive treatment (AHT) for antihypertensive treatment and/or blood pressure ��140/90?mmHg (yes 1, no 0) (Williams et?al. 2000). The renal status was defined based on the albumin excretion rate (AER) in at least two of three consecutive overnight or 24-hr urine collections. Patients were divided by renal status into four categories: Those with normal AER (