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The study population of this report is a part of the CALEX family study that has been described elsewhere.13, 15 Briefly, 396 girls recruited in the city of Jyv?skyl? and its surroundings in Central Finland participated in the laboratory tests 1 to 8 times from 2000 to 2008 (mean duration of total follow-up was 7.5 years) and the data of girls at the early adult stage (mean age 18.1 yrs) measured in 2007 and 2008 were used in this study. In addition, 257 biological mothers and 111 maternal http://www.selleck.cn/products/BKM-120.html grandmothers of these girls were invited to participate in the bone measurements in the years 2003, 2004, 2007, and 2008. In total, 106 girl-mother�Cmaternal grandmother trios were found in this population. Further, only premenopausal mothers (mean age 43.6 years) and postmenopausal grandmothers (mean age 68.0 years) who had no history of medication (such as hormone replacement therapy or antiosteoporotic drugs) or diseases known to affect bone metabolism were included, which resulted in the exclusion of 51 trios. Hence, 55 girl-mother�Cmaternal grandmother trios were used in this http://www.selleckchem.com/products/chir-99021-ct99021-hcl.html report. The study protocol was approved by the ethical committee of the University of Jyv?skyl? and the Central Finland Health Care District. Informed consent was given by all subjects prior to the assessments. The left tibial and radial shafts were scanned using peripheral quantitative computerized tomography (XCT 2000; Stratec Medizintechnik, Pforzheim, Germany). The scan locations http://www.selleckchem.com/products/Y-27632.html were at 60% of lower leg length up from the lateral malleolus and 30% of forearm length proximal to the wrist joint surface. Image processing and calculations of bone parameters were done using the Geanie 2.1 (BonAlyse Oy, Jyv?skyl?, Finland). The bone and muscle parameters included total and cortical bone mineral content (BMC, mg/mm), bone cross-sectional area (CSA, mm2), volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD, mg/cm3), and muscle CSA (mCSA, mm2). A threshold of 280?mg/cm3 was used for the detection of the outer bone border and 11�C279?mg/cm3 for the determination of mCSA. The coefficient of variation (CV) of two repeated measurements on the same subject on the same day was on average 1% for total CSA, cortical CSA, mCSA, cortical BMC, and total BMC and