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In addition, the F test was applied to determine differences in the variance of the EPP amplitudes between control and Syb1lew/lew mice. The difference is considered statistically significant if the P value (P) is less than 0.05. Previous studies have shown that adult rodent motor endplates express Syb1, but not Syb2 (Li et al. 1996). To determine whether the expression of Syb1/Syb2 in juvenile mouse motor endplates is similar to that in adult motor endplates, we immunostained WT juvenile (P14) muscle tissues with either Syb1 or Syb2 antibodies. In addition, we co-labelled the muscle tissues with the postsynaptic marker ��-bgt to identify the NMJ. We found that both Syb1 and Syb2 were expressed at the nerve terminal apposing the postsynaptic AChRs (Fig. 1A, merge). Next, we examined the expression of Syb1 and Syb2 in Syb1lew/lew mice. We found that Syb1 was absent from the nerve terminals of Syb1lew/lew mice, but Syb2 was present at the nerve terminals (Fig. 1B). Furthermore, quantitative immunoblot analysis confirmed that Syb1 was not detectable in Syb1lew/lew mice (Fig. 1C), and that the expression level of Syb2 in Syb1lew/lew mice was similar to that of their littermate controls (Fig. 1D). Thus, there is no compensatory increase in Syb2 expression in Syb1lew/lew mice, consistent with a previous report using quantitative RT-PCR (Nystuen et al. 2007). Using the Syb1lew/lew mouse as a model, we investigated the role of Syb1 in the formation of the NMJ. Among the 69 offspring (11 litters) derived from breeding the heterozygous (Syb1+/lew) mice, 18 were identified as homozygous mutant mice (Syb1lew/lew). These mutant mice appeared grossly normal during the first postnatal week. However, during the second postnatal week, the mutant mice exhibited noticeable motor defects, including the absence of the righting reflex and progressive immobility, consistent with a previous report (Nystuen et al. 2007). At P14, the mutant mice were noticeably smaller, with body weights less than 50% of their littermate controls (control: 8.91 �� 0.17 g, n= 16, Syb1lew/lew: 4.29 �� 0.09 g, n= 17, P