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The statistical models included either gut region or sample site and age as fixed effects. Differences in least square means between locations were declared at P? http://www.selleck.cn/products/U0126.html throughout the GIT. Firstly, the PCR-DGGE profiles generated from different sample types (mucosal tissue vs. ingesta) were compared within each region throughout the gut. The PCR-DGGE profiles generated from ingesta of all sample sites including rumen, jejunum, ileum, cecum, and colon were different from those generated from the matched mucosal tissues (data not shown). When index of Dsc was used to compare mucosal tissue vs. ingesta PCR-DGGE profiles for each GIT region, Dsc was significantly lower (P? http://www.selleckchem.com/products/INCB18424.html bacterial phylotypes between sample types and among gut regions. Based on the best-fit Gaussian curve for each band, 76 and 75 bands were obtained for 3-week and 6-month old calves, respectively, and 80 bacterial phylotypes (band categories) were defined based on both 3-week and 6-month old calves DGGE band patterns. When the richness of the bacterial community in 3-week old calves was compared, a regional effect was not detected for either ingesta- or mucosa-associated http://www.selleckchem.com/products/PLX-4032.html communities (Table?1). However, a significant sample type (mucosa vs. ingesta) effect was observed for ileum (P?=?0.04), where ileal mucosa-associated bacterial community phylotype richness was higher than that of ingesta. A similar trend (P?=?0.07) was observed for rumen and cecum (Table?1). In contrast to 3-week old calves, 6-month old calves displayed a significant regional effect on ingetsa-associated bacterial phylotype richness, but there was no sample type effect. The richness of the bacterial phylotypes in 6-month old calves was lower in jejunal and ileal ingesta when compared to other regions, but no significant differences were detected for the mucosal-associated communities (Table?1).