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The soluble fraction (denatured collagen) was separated quantitatively from the insoluble fraction (intact collagen). Hydroxyproline levels were determined colorimetrically in both fractions after acid hydrolysis. The percentage of denatured collagen was calculated as (hydroxyproline in supernatant/total hydroxyproline)?��?100%.10 Results for PG content and denatured collagen were averaged for all the samples from the lateral and medial compartments. Absolute mean values?��?SDs of six sham, six groove, and six ACLT animals are presented. To analyze differences between OA and sham and between the two OA models, the unpaired nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test was used. Urine level of lysylpyridinoline (LP) as a representative of bone resorption was elevated from week 6 until week 20 (the end of the experiment) in the ACLT model. In the Groove model, no such increase in bone resorption was observed. At all time points from week 6 on, the levels were statistically significantly higher in the ACLT model than in the sham surgery group (Fig. 2A; a: p? statistically significant; Fig. 3). Although the decrease in thickness tended to be larger in the ACLT model, this was not statistically significantly different from the groove model. Subchondral trabecular bone: Subchondral trabecular bone in the ACLT model showed statistically significantly less bone volume fraction (BV/TV; Fig. 4A, left panel) and less trabecular bone thickness (Tb.Th; Fig. 4B, left panel). This also was reflected in the higher SMI (Fig. 4C, left panel) and higher CD (Fig. 4D, left panel), which indicated a more rodlike structure and generation of more pores in the original structure, resulting in more connections per volume. Interestingly, in the groove model, these differences compared with sham animals were seen only as a tendency, not statistically significantly different from the sham group. Because of the significant difference in subchondral trabecular bone characteristics between both models, trabecular bone changes in the metaphyseal part of the tibia were studied as well. Potential changes in this part of the bone are considered not to be intrinsically related to the cartilage degenerative process.