Existence. . . Mortality And Also BAY 80-6946
2; one-sample t-test: t(14) = 0.843, P = 0.42). Finally, we compared the HI scores of the spontaneous actions with the data during manipulation of the feeding boxes. A GLMM revealed no significant difference of the HI scores between conditions (Table 3, a; GLMM: ��2 = 2.8212, P > 0.05), and only three subjects (AMKor, FFLuc and JFCol) exhibited the same direction of hand preference in both conditions. However, a comparison of the absolute HI scores, indicating the strength of the hand preference regardless of the direction, revealed stronger hand preferences in the experimental task (Table 3, b and Fig. 3; GLMM: ��2 = 19.031, P http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MYO10 in wild redfronted lemurs, neither in an experimental task nor during spontaneous actions. This finding contradicts http://www.selleckchem.com/products/Bafetinib.html the ��postural origin theory�� (MacNeilage et al., 1987) that predicts an overall left-handedness for lemurs as very basal primates. Several other studies have failed to show any population level handedness in Garnett's bushbabies (Otolemur garnettii: Cantalupo and Ward, 2000), ringtailed lemurs (Lemur catta: Shaw et al., 2004), indris (Indri indri: Rigamonti et al., 2005), aye-ayes (Daubentonia madagascariensis: Lhota et al., 2009) and in two species of mouse lemurs (Microcebus murinus, M. lehilahytsara: Leliveld et al., 2008). At the individual level, redfronted lemurs exhibited more often and stronger hand preferences during manipulation of the feeding box than during spontaneous actions, supporting the ""task complexity theory"" (Fagot and Vauclair, 1991; Blois-Heulin et http://www.selleckchem.com/products/bay80-6946.html al., 2006). The difference in the strength of the observed hand preferences between the experimental task and the spontaneous actions might be due to situational factors (Zhao et al., 2012). In our experimental condition, we presented the boxes on the ground and subjects could therefore freely decide which hand to use. In contrast, during spontaneous actions, the animals might have been constrained in their choice of hand by the position of the animal on a support or by the position of leaves or fruits when feeding in a tree (Chapelain et al., 2012). Similarly, hand preferences in gentle lemurs (Hapalemur griseus and H. alaotrensis: Stafford et al., 1993) were influenced by the position of the object that they had to reach. Interestingly, the distribution of hand preferences in the experimental condition is similar to the outcome of a food-reaching study on 11 different lemur species (Ward et al., 1990; Table 4), which found, presumably due to the larger sample size, an overall bias for the left hand. The direction of most individuals' hand preferences was not consistent across both conditions, findings that support Warren's hypothesis (1980).