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Multivariable linear regression models were performed to estimate the independent associations between total testosterone serum concentration, SHBG level, or FTI and spiroergometric parameters. The models were adjusted for age, weight, height, physical activity, smoking, and time between core examination and pulmonary function testing. http://www.selleck.cn/products/cobimetinib-gdc-0973-rg7420.html The median time between core examination and pulmonary function testing was 14 days (range, 0�C963 days). Sensitivity analyses were performed after exclusion of men (n = 144) who performed the exercise testing at least 91 days after the core examination. Furthermore, restricted cubic splines (Stone and Koo, 1985) were used to detect a possible nonlinear dependency of the CPET parameters on the investigated hormone levels and to determine any threshold effects. Three knots were prespecified, located at the 5th, 50th, and 95th percentiles as recommended by Stone and Koo (1985), resulting in one component of the spline function. P http://www.selleckchem.com/products/ganetespib-sta-9090.html in the present analyses were younger, more often never-smokers, and physically more active; consumed more alcohol; and had a lower waist circumference compared with nonparticipating men. Furthermore, participating men were less often affected by diabetes mellitus and/or renal disease. Regarding hormone levels, participating men had higher total serum testosterone levels and lower SHBG levels and thus a higher FTI. Multivariable linear regression analyses revealed no associations between total serum testosterone levels and V��O2peak, V��O2 at ��L as well as maximal power output. Regarding SHBG, unadjusted analyses showed negative relations between SHBG and all 3 considered CPET parameters. After adjustment for confounding factors, these associations were no longer present. The same were observed for FTI and V��O2peak, as well as maximal power output; in the full adjusted model, no association could be detected (Table 2). Linear regression analyses with restricted cubic splines revealed significant http://www.selleckchem.com/products/gkt137831.html associations between CPET parameters and total serum testosterone, SHBG levels, and FTI (Figure 1A); however, after exclusion of extreme values (men outside the central 99% range for total testosterone serum concentration or SHBG; n = 11), these associations disappeared (Figure 1A). Sensitivity analyses were performed after exclusion of men with exercise testing at least 91 days after the core examination and with additional confounders including alcohol consumption, diabetes mellitus, and renal diseases. These analyses did not change our main results.