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03). Mean HR was lower in dachshunds http://www.selleckchem.com/products/Imatinib-Mesylate.html (75?��?21?beats?minute?1) compared to other breeds (84?��?21?beats?minute?1) (p?=?0.02). Post-procedural temperature (��C) was lower in dachshunds (35.5?��?1.1) compared to other breeds (36.1?��?1.2) (p?=?0.007) and anticholinergics were also administered more frequently (p?= 0.026). Multivariate analysis identified that breed and mean Pe��CO2 affected mean HR during anaesthesia. Conclusion? This study supported our hypothesis that dachshunds have a lower mean HR under GA than other small breed dogs. ""Mallampati class has been shown to increase during labour. Epidural analgesia might influence this change. The aim of our study was to compare the change in Mallampati class during labour in parturients who did and did not receive epidural analgesia and study the association of these changes with pre-defined clinical characteristics. We performed a prospective observational study of 190 parturients. Using standard methodology, photographs of the upper airway were taken with a digital camera during early labour and within 90?min of delivery. Two to three consultant anaesthetists, blinded to the origin of the photographs, evaluated the images obtained and assigned a Mallampati class to each. Overall, Mallampati class increased in 61 (32.1%), decreased in 18 (9.5%) and did not change in 111 (58.4%) parturients (p? http://www.selleck.cn/products/mi-773-sar405838.html and no change in Mallampati class were similar. Of the relationships between change in Mallampati class and the other factors studied, only the total dose of epidural levobupivacaine during labour demonstrated a weak positive correlation 0.17 (p?=?0.039) with Mallampati class. This study confirms that labour is associated with an increase in the Mallampati class in approximately one third of parturients. Our findings indicate that having an epidural does not influence the likelihood of a change in Mallampati class during labour. The incidence of failed tracheal intubation of obstetric patients is greater than that of non-obstetric patients at 1:250 vs 1:2000, respectively . For an individual patient, the Mallampati classification has been shown to increase during pregnancy  and also http://www.selleckchem.com/products/VX-770.html during labour [3, 4], thus increasing the likelihood of difficult tracheal intubation. Factors that could account for these changes during labour include intravenous fluid administration which may be rapid, antidiuretic effects of oxytocin and prolonged strenuous efforts [5, 6]. Laryngeal oedema has been attributed to intermittently raised venous pressure in the upper body, altering the osmotic balance within the tissues [5, 6]. Parturients who receive epidural analgesia are likely to have greater volumes of intravenous fluids administered during labour than those without, but on the other hand probably bear down less strenuously.