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It is possible that the higher IgG levels of males with brighter bibs in NY might be an effect of malarial infection, rather than a sign of greater humoral immunity. However, in NY, the slope of the relationship between bib brightness and IgG changed very little after controlling for malarial infection, which suggests that the relationship was not an artefact of infection. Thus, it seems more likely to us that males with brighter yellow bibs have better immune function and may produce more antibodies (IgG), regardless of infection, just as males with larger black masks in WI produced more IgG after controlling for infection. Although, the prevalence of malarial parasites was not related to ornament expression in either population, there are geographic differences in the frequency http://www.selleckchem.com/products/Bortezomib.html of various haemosporidian parasites (i.e. Plasmodium, Haemoproteus, and Leucocytozoon) in common yellowthroat populations in the northeastern and northcentral US, which corresponds to our NY and WI study areas, respectively http://www.selleck.cn/products/gdc-0068.html (Pagenkopp et?al. 2008). This requires more study, but it raises the intriguing possibility that geographic variation in the coevolution of malaria parasites and their hosts (Thompson 1999; Dybdahl & Storfer 2003) might lead to switches in the particular ornament that is most revealing of male quality. Lastly, it is possible that geographic differences occur as a consequence of co-evolutionary races between male advertisement and female preferences for male ornaments (van Doorn & Weissing http://www.selleckchem.com/products/sch772984.html 2006). Over evolutionary time, female choice may select for different (and more elaborate) male ornaments as the information content of a particular male ornament changes. Thus, at various times and geographic locations, female choice may be focused on the most revealing male ornament, but the particular ornament preferred by females may vary between populations for arbitrary reasons. We have not found any evidence of consistent temporal changes in the strength of selection on male ornaments, but our studies have been relatively short (