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?4; drought?��?species F12,102?=?7.4, P? reduction in the C4iWUE advantage. Both C3 and C4 species tended to show reduced PNUE under drought (Fig.?4). The extent of this response differed between species (drought?��?species F12,87?=?5.1, P? seven; however, the size of this effect was small, mean gs being 0.03?mol?m?2?s?1 greater in the drought treatment than in the control treatment (F1,112?=?5.36, P?=?0.022). The difference in mean ��op between drought and control was similar to or greater than the change in ��soil for eleven of the 13 species (Fig.?5a). Two C4 species (Digitaria ciliaris and Echinochloa frumentacea) were excluded from the analysis of ��, because values for ��op in the drought treatment were substantially less negative than estimated ��soil. The ��false�� end points detected for these two species may be explained as a result of water contained in non-vascular mesophyll and parenchyma cells being squeezed out of the leaf by the chamber gasket as pressure was applied. There was a significant difference in ��op between drought and control (P? species in the control treatment (t84?=??4.40, P?1.5?MPa, Fig.?5a), which was greater in Ischaemum afrum (C4) than in S. gigantea (C3). The average size of gradients in water potential between leaf and soil, ���� (��op???��soil), showed a significant difference between C3 and C4 species in the control treatment (t84?=??3.878, P?