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?c. dorippus) was possibly missing in both sexes and almost certainly so in females. The Spiroplasma infection rate http://www.selleckchem.com/products/pci-32765.html in females in March to December 2009 was 79.5% (N?=?88) in Cc (correction implies that CC was missing throughout) and 74.1% (N?=?27) in cc; the overall rate for females was 78.3% (N?=?115) compared to 6.8% in males (N?=?44). The difference between Cc and cc females (the CC genotype being assumed missing) is not statistically significant (��2?=?0.297, d.f.?=?1, 0.70?>?P?>?0.50). The overall female infection rate (78.3%) in this population for March 2009 to February 2010 was the highest ever recorded for D.?chrysippus and is in close agreement with the overall frequency (75.5%) of females at eclosion (Table?3); thus, there is indirect corroboration that the Spiroplasma screening was accurate. Because the SSR in the Nairobi region through 1986�C94 was comparable to 2004�C10 at Kasarani, it is reasonable to deduce that Spiroplasma infection has been stable at this high level (though seasonally fluctuating) over some 27?years. After correcting the A locus phenotype frequencies for penetrance of the recessive a allele in heterozygotes (Table?5), the prevalence of Spiroplasma infection in Aa females compared to the combined homozygous phenotypes is very highly significant (��2?=?38.704, d.f.?=?1, P? http://www.selleckchem.com/products/MK-2206.html in males is highly significant (��2?=?38.383, d.f.?=?1, P??P?>?0.05). The overall heterozygote deficit derived from corrected gene frequencies represents a highly significant departure from HWE expectation (��2?=?22.343, d.f.?=?1, P? http://www.selleck.cn/products/chir-99021-ct99021-hcl.html Aa genotype and tested for fit to HWE, the observed frequency of heterozygotes was far below expectation throughout both sampling periods. The SR and morph frequency data reported in the present study are truly extraordinary. The SR of the Kasarani population from March to July 2009 was 0.014. Over this period, equivalent to approximately four butterfly generations, only one male was present among 72 (two females missing from Table?2 could not be scored for phenotype) adults reared from the eggs laid by wild females on the ICIPE campus. This is the lowest SR ever recorded in a wild population of butterflies. It subsequently changed dramatically, increasing to 0.382 (N?=?159) from August to December and peaking at 0.