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J. Med. Virol. 82:2038�C2042, 2010. ? 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. ""The most common first-line, highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) received by individuals infected with HIV-1 in Cameroon is the combination therapy Triomune, comprised of two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI) and one non-NRTI (NNRTI). To examine the efficacy of these drugs in Cameroon, where diverse non-B HIV-1 subtypes and recombinant viruses predominate, the reverse transcriptase (RT) viral sequences in patient plasma were analyzed for the presence of mutations that confer drug http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coagulation resistance. Forty-nine HIV-1-positive individuals were randomly selected from those receiving care in HIV/AIDS outpatient clinics in the South-West and North-West Regions of Cameroon. Among the 28 patients receiving HAART, 39% (11/28) had resistance to NRTIs, and 46% (13/28) to NNRTIs after a median of 12 months from the start of therapy. Among those with drug-resistance mutations, there was a median of 14 months from the start of HAART, versus 9 months for those without; no difference was observed in the average viral load (10,997?copies/ml http://www.selleckchem.com/products/iwr-1-endo.html vs. 8,056?copies/ml). In contrast, drug-na?ve individuals had a significantly higher average viral load (27,929?copies/ml) than those receiving HAART (9,527?copies/ml). Strikingly, among the 21 drug-na?ve individuals, 24% harbored viruses with drug-resistance mutations, suggesting that HIV-1 drug-resistant variants are being transmitted in Cameroon. Given the high frequency of resistance mutations among those on first-line HAART, coupled with the high prevalence of HIV-1 variants with drug-resistance mutations among drug-na?ve individuals, this study emphasizes the need for extensive monitoring of resistance mutations and the introduction of a second-line HAART strategy in Cameroon. J. Med. Virol. 82:187�C196, 2010. ? 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. ""The response marker for interferon has not been investigated fully for hepatitis B viruses (HBVs) in the Philippines where novel subtypes B5 and C5 were recognized recently. The prediction parameters for interferon treatment http://www.selleckchem.com/screening/inhibitor-library.html were assessed, with emphasis on the mutation patterns in the basal core promoter and precore regions in patients with chronic hepatitis B. Seventeen HBeAg-positive patients were stratified according to response to treatment with pegylated interferon based on HBe seroconversion and HBV load. Intra-patient distributions of wild-type strains (A1762, G1764) and variants (T1762, A1764) were analyzed using HBV-DNA amplification and subsequent molecular cloning. The rate of variants (T1762, A1764) harbored by a patient was higher among responders (41.2% and 31% per person on average) than among non-responders (2.4% and 2.4%) to treatment with pegylated interferon at the baseline, respectively (P?