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J. Med. Virol. 82:2038�C2042, 2010. ? 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. ""The most common first-line, highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) received by individuals infected with HIV-1 in Cameroon is the combination therapy Triomune, comprised of two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI) and one non-NRTI (NNRTI). To examine the efficacy of these drugs in Cameroon, where diverse non-B HIV-1 subtypes and recombinant viruses predominate, the reverse transcriptase (RT) viral sequences in patient plasma were analyzed for the presence of mutations that confer drug resistance. Forty-nine HIV-1-positive individuals were randomly selected from those receiving care in HIV/AIDS outpatient clinics in the South-West and North-West Regions of Cameroon. Among the 28 patients receiving HAART, 39% (11/28) had resistance to NRTIs, and 46% (13/28) to NNRTIs after a median of 12 months from the start of therapy. Among those with drug-resistance mutations, there was a median of 14 months from the start of HAART, versus 9 months for those without; no difference was observed in the average viral load (10,997?copies/ml vs. 8,056?copies/ml). In contrast, drug-na?ve individuals had a significantly higher average viral load (27,929?copies/ml) than those receiving HAART (9,527?copies/ml). Strikingly, among the 21 drug-na?ve individuals, 24% harbored viruses with drug-resistance mutations, suggesting that HIV-1 drug-resistant variants are being transmitted in Cameroon. Given the high frequency of resistance mutations among those on first-line HAART, coupled with the high prevalence of HIV-1 variants with drug-resistance mutations among drug-na?ve individuals, this study emphasizes the need for extensive monitoring of resistance mutations and the introduction of a second-line HAART strategy in Cameroon. J. Med. Virol. 82:187�C196, 2010. ? 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. ""The response marker for interferon has not been investigated fully for hepatitis B viruses (HBVs) in the Philippines where novel subtypes B5 and C5 were recognized recently. The prediction parameters for interferon treatment were assessed, with emphasis on the mutation patterns in the basal core promoter and precore regions in patients with chronic hepatitis B. Seventeen HBeAg-positive patients were stratified according to response to treatment with pegylated interferon based on HBe seroconversion and HBV load. Intra-patient distributions of wild-type strains (A1762, G1764) and variants (T1762, A1764) were analyzed using HBV-DNA amplification and subsequent molecular cloning. The rate of variants (T1762, A1764) harbored by a patient was higher among responders (41.2% and 31% per person on average) than among non-responders (2.4% and 2.4%) to treatment with pegylated interferon at the baseline, respectively (P?