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2007). Additionally, the level of IL-8 has been found elevated in aqueous humour and in serum of patients with retinal artery occlusion (Kramer et?al. 2005) and in serum of patients with non-arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy (Goldenberg-Cohen et?al. 2004). Elevated IL-8 levels in ocular fluid and in systemic circulation have been associated with the ischaemic condition in the eye. As ischaemia is important in predicting the visual outcome in patients with diabetes, this study was performed to investigate whether vitreous levels of VEGF and IL-8 are associated with the visual outcome after vitrectomy in PDR patients with type 2 diabetes. The vitreous samples were obtained consecutively from 67 eyes of 66 patients with http://www.selleckchem.com/products/LBH-589.html PDR in a 1-year period. For further analysis of the association of preoperative variables with postoperative http://www.selleckchem.com/products/Gefitinib.html visual acuity, only eyes with attached retina after a single operation were analysed. Patients with previous vitrectomy, neovascularization of nondiabetic aetiology, recent vitreous haemorrhage ( http://www.selleck.cn/products/forskolin.html vitreous fluid. Patient clinical characteristics (age, sex, duration of diabetes, age at onset of diabetes, insulin treatment, glycaemic control, hypertension) and preoperative eye characteristics (visual acuity, iris neovascularization, vitreous haemorrhage, macular detachment, macular oedema, progression of retinopathy defined by active or inactive membranes, neovascularization of the disc (NVD), burned out PDR and panretinal photocoagulation) were registered prior to surgery for each patient. The preoperative and postoperative eye characteristics were assessed by standardized colour fundus photography 1 day before and at 2 years after vitrectomy. In patients with poor preoperative visualization of the retina because of cataract or vitreal haemorrhage, two ophthalmologists independently assessed eye characteristics intra-operatively. Arterial hypertension was defined by a systolic blood pressure of 130 mmHg or higher, and/or diastolic blood pressure of 85 mmHg or higher, or defined as the condition treated with antihypertensive medications.