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It is not clear whether it represents ventricular depolarization or early repolarization. A similar deflection may be present in patients with hypercalcemia, Brugada syndrome, and in several other conditions (4). The J (junction) point marks the end of the QRS complex, and is often http://www.selleckchem.com/B-Raf.html situated above the baseline, particularly in healthy young males. It may also be elevated as a result of injury currents during acute myocardial ischemia and pericarditis, as well as in various other patterns of both normal and abnormal ECGs. Defining normal limits of J-point elevation in millivolts above the baseline requires consideration of several variables, such as the lead, heart rate, age, sex, race, and overall amplitude of the QRS complex (see the following text). The absence of such data makes it difficult to evaluate the significance of increased J-point elevation found in survivors of primary ventricular fibrillation (5). http://www.selleck.cn/products/torin-1.html One of the problems in measurement of the QRS duration is defining the J-point when the transition of the QRS complex into the ST segment is not sharp but gradual because of an overlap of ventricular depolarization and repolarization at the end of the QRS complex. In a method proposed by Lepeschkin and Surawicz (6) to define the J-point when the QRS-ST junction is not sharply demarcated, but curved (wide QRS-ST junction), the discrepancy of repeated measurements of the QRS interval reached 40 ms. In current clinical practice, the measurement of the QRS interval is performed by automated methods of analyzing all 12 leads simultaneously recorded in digital form. The automated technique appears to decrease the error of measurement. However, the International Electrotechnical Commission tolerance limits in measurement of QRS duration in biological (real) as opposed to calibration and analytical ECGs are �� 10 ms (7). Differences between ventricular repolarization in the ECGs of males and females have been known for a long time (8). Bidoggia et al. (9) found that the amplitude of the J-point and the angle between the ST segment and the baseline (ST angle) were the best discriminators between the ECGs of males and females. Surawicz and Parikh (10) examined the previously mentioned 2 variables in normal ECGs of 529 males and 544 females, age 5 to 96 years. They inspected only the 4 precordial leads: http://www.selleckchem.com/products/abt-199.html V1 through V4. The pattern was considered as female when the J-point amplitude above baseline was 0.1 mV and the ST angle was >20�� in at least 1 of the 4 leads. In females of all ages, the male pattern was present in