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001) and that, among those participants who were HIV-negative at baseline, the cumulative HIV incidence at 48 months was higher among Aboriginal individuals (18.5 versus 9.5%; P? http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DYRK1B sex. Subsequent research has implied that elevated rates of incarceration as well as lower access to HIV and addiction treatment probably explain these findings . In this context, the role that drug policies can play in contributing to the HIV epidemic and other harms among illicit drug users has recently been the subject of increasing international attention, including a recent report of the blue ribbon Global Commission on Drug Policy entitled The War on Drugs and HIV/AIDS: How the Criminalization of Drug Use Fuels the Global Pandemic . This report describes the range of ways in which the criminalization of drug-using individuals contributes to the spread of HIV infection. These mechanisms include behavioural influences created by the fear of arrest, restrictions on clean needle http://www.selleckchem.com/products/lgk-974.html distribution and opioid substitution therapy, barriers to antiretroviral therapy and addiction treatment, as well as the negative influences of incarceration (Table?1). The negative influences of incarceration were documented in the classic Scottish prison HIV outbreak investigation, which used http://www.selleckchem.com/screening/apoptosis-library.html phylogenetic techniques to demonstrate how HIV was spreading through syringe sharing among inmates . Prisons also have a negative effect on HIV ��treatment as prevention�� strategies, which seek to use antiretroviral therapy to lower plasma HIV�Cresponse effect of incarceration events on antiretroviral non-adherence , and a Baltimore study of HIV-infected patients found recently that even brief periods of incarceration were associated with a twofold risk of syringe sharing and a greater than sevenfold risk of HIV virological failure . As indicated in the Des Jarlais paper , ethnic disparities in HIV infection are particularly large in the United States, where the nation's long-standing ��war on drugs�� has had a decidedly negative impact on minority communities. For instance, in the United States, African Americans are many times more likely to be incarcerated for drug-related offences than whites, despite the fact that African Americans and whites use drugs at similar rates. In this context, past research has suggested that disproportionate incarceration rates are one of the key reasons for the markedly elevated rates of HIV infection among African Americans .