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Findings? At 3 months, relative to controls, fewer intervention group participants were at-risk drinkers [odds ratio (OR) 0.41; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.22�C0.75]; they reported drinking fewer drinks in the past 7 days [rate ratio (RR) 0.79; 95% CI 0.70�C0.90], less heavy drinking (OR 0.46; 95% CI http://www.selleckchem.com/products/lgk-974.html 0.22�C0.99) and had lower risk scores (RR 0.77 95% CI 0.63�C0.94). At 12 months, only the difference in number of drinks remained statistically significant (RR 0.87; 95% CI 0.76�C0.99). Conclusions? A multi-faceted intervention among older at-risk drinkers in primary care does not reduce the proportions of at-risk or heavy drinkers, but does reduce amount of drinking at 12 months. ""This chapter contains sections titled: Introduction Characteristics of Psychostimulants Quantitative MR Morphology Changes Associated with Psychostimulant Dependence Gross Anatomic Changes in Brain Structures and Subtle Neurotoxicity Relationship between Errant Neuromodulation by Drug Abuse and Cognitive Abnormalities Neurochemical Alterations and Psychostimulant Dependence Abnormal White Matter Integrity in Psychostimulant Dependence Alcohol and Opiate Addiction Conclusion References ""The aim of the present work was to systematically review all association studies of cannabis receptor 1 (CNR1) polymorphisms with dependence syndrome and to perform a meta-analysis. Odds ratios (ORs) were estimated by contrasting the ratio of counts of the ��high risk�� versus ��low risk�� http://www.selleckchem.com/screening/apoptosis-library.html alleles in cases with dependence versus controls. Studies were analyzed by random-effects meta-analysis using pooled OR. Eleven full text articles met our eligibility criteria and nine meta-analyses were performed on three polymorphisms of CNR1: rs1049353, rs806379 and the AAT http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DYRK1B repeat. Of these, only the AAT polymorphism showed a significant association with illicit substance dependence but only in the Caucasian population samples and using a risk allele definition of ��?16 repeats. Our analysis showed a small effect size (OR?=?1.55, P?=?0.045), with strong heterogeneity (Q?=?19.87, P?