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1% had FPG http://www.selleck.cn/products/torin-1.html For subjects with NDM, only increased FPG level was significantly associated with DR (Table?2). Other risk factors examined in this study that were not significantly associated with DR among all diabetic participants or among the NDM subjects include marital status, education, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, history of stroke, self-reported coronary heart disease, use of aspirin and use http://www.selleckchem.com/B-Raf.html of oral contraceptive (data not shown). In the multivariable-adjusted model, risk factors independently associated with any DR were longer diabetic duration, elevated FPG levels and elevated SBP in all subjects with diabetes, while in those with NDM, the only independent risk factor was elevated FPG level (Table?3). We did the analysis to explore the associations between diabetes duration and estimated prevalence of DR in both all DM group and the KDM group, respectively. The relationship between estimated prevalence of DR and diabetes duration was nonlinear in both groups. Then to clarify the specific relationship between http://www.selleckchem.com/products/abt-199.html duration of diabetes and prevalence of DR, we excluded those NDM that were assigned with zero diabetic duration. So in Fig.?1 we plotted the estimated prevalence of DR against years of diabetic duration only for the KDM. At the duration of 0?year, the estimated DR prevalence is about 30%. This increases rapidly at the first 3?years to reach a small plateau at the duration of 3�C5?years, when the DR prevalence is about 50�C60%. Then it increases linearly after the duration of 5?years till a 10-year duration, reaching up to 80% at the duration of 10?years. The slope becomes flatter after 10?years of duration and then nearly completely flat after 15?years of duration, with the prevalence of over 90% in those with diabetes for nearly 20?years or longer. The association between FPG levels and estimated DR prevalence were initially analyzed among all DM participants, and then we excluded the treated cases (KDM). Among the NDM cases, the relationship between estimated prevalence of DR and FPG levels appears to be linear (Fig.?2A). Figure?2B shows the linear relationship between estimated prevalence of DR and the elevated level of SBP for all DM subjects.