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However, the dynamics of resource exchange in grass-endophyte symbioses are not well understood. Rasmussen et?al. (2007) found that the concentration of the closely related N.?lolii endophyte in perennial ryegrass decreased in plants that were selectively bred to produce high levels of water-soluble carbohydrates. More recent work suggests that such changes may be brought about in part by carbohydrates but are also strongly dependent on the genetic background of host plants (Ryan et?al. unpublished results). We observed that alkaloid production per unit endophyte decreased in elevated CO2 (Fig.?5a). Interestingly, we also found that a linear correlation between endophyte and alkaloid concentration in ambient conditions disappeared in elevated CO2, which may indicate that the symbiotic nutrient economy may be disrupted to some degree in a high CO2 atmosphere (Fig.?5b�Cd). The relationship between alkaloid and endophyte concentration in plants grown under elevated CO2 appears to be quadratic, with very low levels of alkaloids in plants with either very low or very high endophyte concentrations, and this was particularly apparent in the 1000?ppm treatment. This may suggest that plants undergoing the largest CO2-induced changes in resource allocation have a higher endophyte concentration due to excess carbohydrates, and the lowest alkaloid concentrations due to simultaneous N dilution. If this interpretation is correct then we would expect that plants where the C:N ratio are highest (i.e. strong CO2-induced C/N allocation responses) would have the lowest alkaloid per unit endophyte concentrations. While there was some support for this here (Log[lolines per unit endophyte]?=?3.17�C0.38 (Log[C:N]); R2?=?0.06, F1,102?=?7.03, P?