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Before the syringe is even picked up, the athlete must wash his/her hands thoroughly with soap. This is a fundamental, but often overlooked step.

Next, the exact spot of injection should be measured with the utmost precision. A cotton swab dabbed in rubbing alcohol is used to clean the spot of the injection site before the needle is inserted. The syringe should be held at a 90-degree angle and slowly, yet firmly, insert it into the skin. Once inserted, pull back ever so slightly on the pump (the “plunger” portion of the syringe) and watch to see if any blood enters the syringe. If blood is present, then a new spot must be chosen. The presence of blood here indicated that a blood vessel was hit. If the drug is injected into a blood vessel the results could be disastrous. If there is no blood present, slowly inject the drug. The slower the drug is injected, the less pain is generally felt. steroids online Once the syringe has been emptied, the needle is pulled out and a fresh cotton swab is applied to the site. Hold the swab tightly to the injection site for about a minute. After a minute, apply a bandage or a piece of medical tape over the swab. Keeping the injection site clean is essential. An infection can easily occur, as discussed earlier. If the infection is left unchecked, permanent damage can take place, causing horrible scarring. The most serious issue here, however, is the development of gangrene, which is the local death of tissues resulting from a lack of blood supply. Blood supply to the skin and surrounding tissues can be cut off by the presence of an infection. When gangrene grows out of control, amputation is necessary.

Be sure to discard of the syringe in a safe manner, it is now considered medical waste material and should be treated as such. Never reuse a needle, and never share a needle – period.

Du Toit et al. (2005) studied the effect of anabolic steroids and the incidence of detrimental cardiovascular effects including sudden cardiac death. The researchers hypothesized that the use of anabolic steroids increases myocardial susceptibility to ischemia/reperfusion injury. The researchers concluded that the use of anabolic steroids, whether taken under exercise training or under sedentary conditions increase the risk of myocardial damage, which is directly related to the steroid induced increases in the pre ischemic myocardial cyclic AMP (cAMP) concentrations.

Beitel (2005) investigated the cardiovascular effects of anabolic steroids. It was found that the use of anabolic steroids (specifically stanozolol) increased mean arterial pressure (MAP) and cardiac output (CO), creating excessive stress on the heart. Cardiac hypertrophy was also observed, which may lead to other serious cardiac problems.

Grace (2004) determined that bodybuilders who use anabolic steroids have significantly higher levels of C protein circulating throughout the blood stream, making the athlete more prone to developing peripheral arterial disease.

Steroids can trigger a hormonal imbalance that alters the athlete’s endocrine system. As a result, headaches are common and usually result from a secondary cause. Headaches can be triggered by high blood pressure, which is a common side effect of anabolic steroid use.