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In the 1st negated expression, we not only want to iden tify that the threonine required in the MIM fact is no longer a aspect of cyclin D1, but that the amino acid, alanine, it was substituted with cannot be phosphorylated. At this position, there is however no mention of degradation, nevertheless with area know-how this can be inferred from the second negated expression, as polyubiquitination of a protein trig gers a signal for the protein to be degraded. Coreference expressions When automatically extracting facts about a bio entity, this kind of as the interactions it is associated in, it is impor tant to recognize all textual references to that entity inside of the text, to assure all info is retrieved. These tex tual references, for examples, it, they and these, are identified as coreference expressions. In biomedical literature, corefer ence expressions are often employed to make abbreviated or indirect references to bio entities or events. To quantify the worth of coreference expressions, occasions in the MIM corpus are annotated with pronom inal, sortal and occasion anaphoric expressions, and cata phoric expressions, which includes people referring to terms in an additional sentence. As in the negated expression annotations, only coreference expressions which need to have to be resolved to infer the MIM reality are annotated. Examples of annotated coreference expressions are shown in Test ple 4, 10, and eleven 14. The coreferring expressions and their referred phrases are underneath lined with a solitary line. In Case in point 11, the relationship of the MIM A1 Subfact is indirectly said in the occasion as. affiliation in between these proteins. which can be expanded to. affiliation among c Abl and HsRad51. which right states the partnership. For an IE program to establish this relationship, the sortal anaphoric expression these proteins which is syntactically nearer to the circumstances partnership statement, would require to be connected to the proteins c Abl and HsRad51. A similar sortal expression seems in Example four, exactly where the pronoun they in the next sentence refers to the proteins in the initial sentence. Nevertheless, this ana phoric expression is much more complicated to take care of. First of all, the anaphor they does not specify what form of bio entity it is referring to. Next, it is employed to refer to only two of the three proteins in the 1st sentence. The third protein, HDAC1, is referred to in the second sen tence with the anaphoric expression histone deacetylase. These anaphoric expressions want to be solved, alongside with the dependencies, to hyperlink the information in both equally sentences collectively to variety the MIM fact. In the MIM corpus, we distinguish in between the anaphoric expressions which refer to one or numerous entities, we have just described, from those that refer to functions this sort of as molecular processes. The MIM corpus occasion anaphora annotations vary to individuals explained by Humphreys et al, who hyperlink unique sequential gatherings alongside one another.