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Eleven (8 female, 3 male) unique individuals, none from the first site, were detected at the second Tangjiahe site based on samples collected over 25 days. Other concentrations included a 5-km2 site in the center of Meigu where 7 bears (5 females, 2 males) http://www.selleckchem.com/products/wnt-c59-c59.html were detected in 2009, and a 3-km2 site north of Xuebaoding where 6 bears (2 females, 4 males) were detected in 2010. Mast densities in the vicinity of the Meigu and Xuebaoding congregation sites averaged 5.7 and 8.0?nuts/m2 respectively, and were considerably higher than reserve averages in those years (Table?1). Of 454 fecal samples included in our analysis of glucocorticoids, 190 (42%) were collected within nature reserve boundaries at 1165�C3310 m elevation, in broadleaved forests (52%), mixed broadleaf conifer forests (25%), conifer (11%) and shrub (4%) vegetation types. Ten fecal http://www.selleckchem.com/products/AZD0530.html samples (5%) found within reserves were in agricultural fields. The remaining 58% of feces were collected outside reserves at 1250�C3300 m elevation where they were similarly distributed among habitat types (broadleaved forests 53%, mixed broadleaf conifer 32%, shrub 7%, conifer 6%, and agricultural fields 2%). Both males and females engaged in crop raiding based on samples collected in agricultural fields (10 female feces [8% of female samples], 3?male feces [4% of male samples]) and those with corn as a primary dietary constituent (3 female, 2 male). Ranked in descending frequency of occurrence, primary constituents in fecal samples collected inside reserves were soft mast (36%; e.g.,? Elaeagnus umbellata, Actinidia spp.), hard mast (23%), non-fruit vegetation (13%), flesh (12%), mixed flesh and vegetation (8%), and corn (7%). Primary constituents in feces collected outside reserves were soft mast (50%), hard mast (13%), non-fruit vegetation (10%), flesh (10%), corn (9%), http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ALOX15 mixed flesh and vegetation (4%), and insect (4%). A larger proportion of samples collected within reserves contained hard mast. Fecal glucocorticoid concentration, distance to the nearest village, distance to road, and percent forest cover each varied considerably among samples (Table S3, Appendix A). Mast production varied among nature reserves and across years within each reserve, with 2009 being highest in 5 of 6 reserves sampled during all 3 years. Some variation in hard mast abundance was attributable to differing densities of chestnut, oak, and walnut trees, which varied 18-fold among reserves (Table?1). A remote sensing-based analysis of agricultural land cover components inside and adjacent to nature reserves revealed that 2%�C14% of the land within reserves and 3%�C13% of land outside reserves (within 3 km) were agricultural (Table?1). Amounts of agricultural land use within and adjacent to each reserve were correlated (r2=0.67r2=0.67, p