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HRR was calculated as maximal HR (HRmax) minus resting HR.37 The HRmax was estimated using an indirect formula ��206.9 �C 0.67?��?age��38 and the target HR was calculated by a formula as follows: Target?HR?=?(HRmax?�C?resting?HR)?��?percentage?intensity?desired?+?resting?HR To monitor the exercise intensity, participants were required to wear a Polar watch (Polar RS800CX; Polar Electro Oy, Kempele, Finland) and have their HR tracked every 2?min during exercise. The velocity was slightly modified based on the HR. EEGs were recorded by NeuroScan NuAmps acquisition amplifiers (Neuroscan, Charlotte, NC, USA). An electrode cap was placed according to the 10�C20 International System. The signals were recorded from 15 sites (Fz, F3, F4, FCz, FC3, FC4, Cz, C3, C4, CPz, CP3, CP4, Pz, P3, and P4), which were all referenced to linked earlobes, where Fpz served as the ground electrode. Additionally, vertical and horizontal eye movement artifacts (VEOG and HEOG, respectively) were assessed through the collection of bipolar electro-oculographic activity (EOG). A 60-Hz notch filter was also employed during the data collection process, and the bandpass of the filter was set between 1 and 100?Hz. Scalp electrode impedances were below 10?k��. Data were acquired at a sampling rate of 500?Hz using Neuroscan software. The ERP data were off-line processed with Scan 4.3 software (Compumedics USA, Ltd., El Paso, TX, USA). Epochs of 2000?ms before S2 onset were computed with an additional 200?ms pre-stimulus (S1) baseline. EEG signals that were contaminated by EOG were corrected using an algorithm. In addition, trials with amplitude excursions exceeding?��?100?��V were excluded and then data were filtered with a 30-Hz low-pass cutoff (24?dB/octave). All trials were finally averaged for both Go and No Go conditions separately following visual inspection for artifacts. Grand average ERP waveforms for each session and stimulus type were displayed for the purpose of identifying each component's latency range. CNV 1 and CNV 2 were quantified by determining the mean amplitude in the range 300�C600?ms and 1700�C2000?ms after the warning stimulus (S1) onset, respectively. Performance measures were reaction time (RT), hit (correct responses to Go stimuli), commission errors (responses to No-Go stimuli), and omission errors (failure to respond to Go stimuli). All error trials or trials with responses that were faster than 200?ms or slower than 1000?ms (