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Based on their cellular functions, many of these proteins were linked to the increase in the replication efficiency of DENV. Among the proteins were calreticulin, acetyl coenzyme A, acetyl transferase, and fatty acid-binding protein. It was concluded that the infection of Vero cells with DENV-2/NG or DENV-2/16681 differentially modifies the expression of certain proteins, which can, in turn, facilitate infection. J. Med. Virol. 86:1448�C1458, 2014. ? 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. ""The prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) markers was investigated in 563 inhabitants aged 15�C55 years from a sugar cane region, Sirama, and from a village, Mataipako, in Northern Madagascar. Serological markers of past or http://www.selleckchem.com/ATM.html present infection were significantly higher in Sirama, 74% versus 45%. There was no difference in the prevalence of chronic HBsAg carriers, 8.7% versus 8.5% between the two regions. Sequencing the S gene in 45 strains revealed a predominance of genotype E, in 53%, followed by subgenotype A1 in 22%, and genotype D in 18%. Phylogenetic analyses of the genotype E strains showed homology with West African strains. All A1 isolates were similar to Malawi strains. Most genotype D strains were subgenotype D7 and related to strains from Somalia and Tunisia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Non-specific_serine/threonine_protein_kinase One genotype D strain formed a branch between Pacific D4 and African D7 strains at neighbor-joining analysis. The pre-core stop mutant was found in 33% of the genotype D strains, 17% of E but not in any A1 strain. The high prevalence and low variability of genotype E strains in only two villages, indicates a rather recent introduction of this genotype into Madagascar from West Africa, possibly through migration or slave trade. The wider spread and genetic relationship of genotype D with East African and Austronesian strains indicate an earlier introduction of this genotype. Molecular epidemiology of HBV may thus be used to complement linguistic and genetic studies on past human migrations in Africa. J. Med. Virol. 82:1515�C1526, 2010. ? 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. ""Enteroviruses (EVs) often infect humans, presenting as endemic or epidemic infections. In this study, the diversity of infecting EVs was studied among 146 children and 137 adults in a small community in Cameroon. The participants provided 2,458 fecal samples during 1-year monthly collection; 10 or more samples were obtained http://www.selleckchem.com/products/PF-2341066.html from 55%. Partial 5��UTR-VP4 region could be sequenced in 393/547 PCR positive samples obtained from 119 children and 85 adults. EV-RNA was detected in at least one sample from 235 participants (83%) during the study period. A total of 121 different strains were identified, 66 infected only children, 29 only adults, and 26 infected both children and adults. There were children with up to five episodes with different strains, and adults with up to four such episodes. Infants aged