Antibody Engineering For Specific Application
When the antibodies find their target, they bind to it and mark it for death. Think of this as a baseball with toilet plungers attached. The wooden handle is what tells the immune protection system, "this thing must die ".
Here is the basic theory behind monoclonal cancer therapy. Except in the context of monoclonal antibody cancer treatment, the antibodies are produced to a single epitope (a particular protein that the immunity system readily sees from the cancer cell). These cells are then taken to the laboratory, grown and stimulated to produce a single antibody that "sees" a cancer cell.
A typical example of monoclonal antibody treatment in cancer is Herceptin. Herceptin is really a monoclonal antibody specific for an antigen called HER2. HER2 is really a protein that is more prevalent on cancer cells of the breast than in normal cells. This protein is from a household of receptors that tells Anti-PCNA AntibodyCy3 Conjugated cells to grow. The drug then takes advantage of this and can specifically target cancer cells of the breast in order to kill them. This drug too has side effects to be NOT heart friendly.
Another good exemplory instance of neoplastic cancer therapy could be the drug termed Rituxan (Rituximab). Rituxan is a monoclonal antibody directed towards the antigen CD20 on circulating lymphocytes of the blood and is indicated for the treating non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. It functions by depleting the blood of cells that have over-produced cells which have CD20 on their cell surface. When the antibody binds, like Herceptin, the body sees those cells as foreign and kills them.
So, the question is currently that individuals know what neoplastic antibody therapy is, so how exactly does this killing work?
The current research and thinking is that when cancer cells are coated by these antibody drugs, the extending end of the antibody called the Fc portion attracts Natural Killer, NK, cells from the immune system.
These cells already have receptors that recognize this very event. When NK cells find antibody coated cells, they bind in their mind tightly and commence to kill them. The close proximity of both cells allows the NK cell to produce protein degradating enzymes, and other cytotoxic elements to kill the target.
ADCC is a powerful tool being utilized by numerous biotech companies with the intent to augment the immune response with other, novel drugs. Such drugs that spring to mind are TLR agonists, chemotherapy drugs and gene transfer strategies.
Genentech makes Herceptin, while Rituximab is in combination with Biogen Idec/Genentech. Both drugs are multimillion dollar assets to both companies. The medial side ramifications of Herceptin have already been documented and are under intense research to know them. Rituxan remains a essential element to the bottom type of both companies with it's successful treatments.