A Tuvan hero tale, with commentary, morphemic analysis, and translation.

Only from then on the particular hero began in order to prepare himself for
shooting.


kuzur eri[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]=daa cuu boor, deerzin,
poor male=EMPH what PROB DISC

kuzur boktu-kiris,
poor B-K
182. even the 2 breasts and your woman's genitals


kim-ga=daa korgus-pe-jn,
who-DAT=EMPH show-NEG-1MOD
103. identical form line 7 along with [kt] instead of
[tk].

14. the herd (4) of gray horses.


ari cer-ni[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] arga-zin-ga
northern.slope place-GEN forest-3-DAT
21. Just About All individuals men with bows along with arrows were to end up being able to go from the foot of
Bashky mountain


so[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]gu
northern

dag-ni[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] edeen-ce bad-ar
mountain-GEN bottom-ALL go.down-PF

uzur-lug, di-ves-ler be.
obligation-ADJ say-NEGF-PL QUES
155. According to some 1989 census
(cited throughout Mongus 1996), there are over 198,000 Tuvans inside the titular republic, and a few thousand more outside its borders, including some
just for the north inside the Krasnoyarsk district, a quantity of thousand in
Western Mongolia, along along with a couple of hundred in Xinjiang, China.

3. the particular golden princess Angyr-Chechen, as his wife


kudala-p ekke-er bol-za, ol-la aldin
wed-CV bring-PF AUX-COND this-EMPH golden

da[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]gina
princess
74. Throughout press. 3: 80-87.

20. He told stories all through his life as an
avocation, but reported throughout 2001 that discovering an audience had turn out in order to be more
and much more difficult. a new short one, finished inside just fifteen minutes,


siler-ni[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]
you-GEN

kiceengej-i[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]er-ge baraalga-di-pt-ajn.
attention-2.PL-DAT present-CAUS-PERF-F1

sijaan am
FORM FORM
5. is not just a man from all, but a new woman.


daarta xures uje-zin-de xin-ap
tomorrow wrestling time-3-LOC check-CV

kor-u[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]er, dep xaan-ga mindzan-gan.
AUX-2PL (14) QUOT khan-DAT do.thus-PST
203. the lady ran towards him simultaneously with the agility associated with a
falcon

xajt kil-di-r duzur-up,
SYMB do-CAUS-PF make.fall.down-CV
250. any noble and kind golden door,


kis xindi-i baza xeveer bo-op=tur eves=be
girl genitals-3 (10) furthermore as.before PROB-CV=COP NEG=QUES
95. I believed that it had been merely a dream,


sinap-la kudala-p ekkel-gen
truly-EMPH marry-CV bring-PST
367. mal -magan-i=bile,
all gold silver-3=INS, cattle -livestock-ACC=INS
136. 1999. dialect form
doonda, regular Tuvan inda.

6. This specific tale was recorded inside August 1998 within the program of
fieldwork funded by simply IREX. Tuvans are
also, since the actual seventeenth century, Lamaist Buddhists, and they have
long practiced Buddhism as well as animism in parallel and in addition to any significant
degree inside syncretism (Mongus 1994). 1978. Exactly Where Rivers and
Mountains Sing: Sound, Songs as well as Nomadism inside Tuva and Beyond.
Bloomington: Indiana Univ. Inside each triplet, an
adverb appears as the really first element, a pet title since the second, along with a
body-part as third or successive: 'very' / 'kite'
(birdname) / 'head'; 'very' / 'eagle' /
'shoulder'; 'very' / 'hare' / '...
tailbone', etc.

15. there was three wild animals already chained up.


ol araattan a[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]-nar deerge karzi
those wild animal-PL DISC cruel

xajirakan,
bear,
145. (she discovered out) the announced competition would begin
tomorrow.


sa[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] xaan us moorej
S. He moved his bow up and down to aim the first arrow,


tirt-ip tirt-ip tirt-ip sal-gan-na.
pull-CV pull-CV pull-CV put-PST-EMPH
184. in the particular illustration tale
presented here, your heroine, a woman named Bora-Seelei, must conceal her
sex, assume the girl dead brother's identity, as well as embark on the difficult
quest with almost all the ultimate objective involving restoring the girl brother (Boktu-Kiris) to
life. Along With having reached your yurt camp,


doo kuj-da su-p ka-an ol-gen aki-zi-n
thatDIST cave-LOC put.in-CV AUX-PST die-PST elder.brother-3-ACC
343. Tuvans involving Mongolia as well as China. ran quickly to him and also whispered within his ear:


et[.sup.j], xaan sak ol bo boktu-kiris dep tur-ar
EXCLAMEL (13) khan extremely this B-K QUOT AUX-PF

eri[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII],
male
201. As Well As that's it," stated (the horse), crying,
"that's what happened."


bora-seelej kis di[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]ma-zi
B-S girl younger.sibling-3
60. Getting completed just that,


kuluguru[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]=daa cuu bo-or, daarta
hero=EMPH what PROB-CV tomorrow

xojle[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]-i-n ust-a
shirt-3-ACC take.off-CV
226. 1980. That turns out that will tomorrow everybody must race horseback
naked.


kis xindi-im-ni kandza-pt-ajin?
girl genitals-1-ACC do.how-PERF-1MOD
274. That Will misfortune notwithstanding, tea bowls were lay out and also the
entire extended loved ones associated with eight persons, ranging throughout get older from concerning seven
to over eighty, assembled about the grass at along aspect it of the yurt to end up being able to hear
the tale. your woman checked out herself inside the mirror. Your Khan's entire army went right after them with shouts,


dirig-ge tutkula-as-ti[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] am
alive-DAT catch.with.barking.dogs-ss-GEN now

ilcirbe-le-p ka-an.
chain-VSF-CV AUX-PST
153. Your demise of epic storytelling could be attributed to numerous factors.
Among fundamental essentials invasion associated with pop culture, that diminishes the
attraction of oral tales, the actual decrease inside the nomadic lifestyle which usually is
the the majority of all-natural setting regarding tale-telling, and also the creation of widespread
literacy, that diminishes your perceived need to memorize long tales.
Unlike "throat-singing," your immensely well-liked Tuvan cultural
export (Levin and also Edgerton 1999, Levin and Suzukei 2006), epic
storytelling offers certainly not yet attracted a different audience. Along With getting shot out the actual guts with the bloodthirsty gray wolf,


borbek baz-i-n uz-e ad-ip coru-du-p-kan.
roundSYMB head-3-ACC separate-CV shoot-CV go-CAUS-PERF-PST
196. the woman's elder brother, on the northern slope named Arzaity in the Ala
mountains,


ol-up kal-gan,
die-CV AUX-PST
45. Whenever they emerged close for the yurt,


caa, am aal irak eves,
okay now yurt.camp way NEG
339. Many with the wrestlers' calves began in order to tremble.


xures=daa egele-en-ne!
wrestle=EMPH begin-PST-EMPH
239. Its chest can not really be in comparison in any approach to the man's chest.


bir-le xorek er cuve,
one-EMPH chest male thing
233. Getting killed in which white gander,


kez-i-n soj-up okta-p-kas-ti[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII],
skin-3-ACC peel-CV throw-PERF-SS-GEN

ak kas-ti[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] koske-e-n
white goose-GEN goose.part-3-ACC
282. your woman magically turned him into frozen meat.


dedir aas-tig kara kuj-ga
back mouth-ADJ black cave-DAT

suk-kas-ti[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII],
put.in-SS-GEN
120. However, through utilizing a variety of methods,


iji emi-i[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]-ni=daa, kis
two breasts-2-ACC=EMPH girl

xindi-i[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]-ni=daa
genitals-2-ACC=EMPH
102. What type of creature is actually it?"


xoj moge-ler-ni[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] baldir-lar-i
many wrestler-PL-GEN calf-PL-3

siri[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]ejn-ki ber-gen cuve=dir.
shake-CV INCH-PST PN=DEIC
238. (1)

______. I shall give my daughter as getting a wife,


xamik aldin mongun-u=bile,. His genitals tend to be like the beak of the bird,


bir-le mijis, artida dis-tig-distig,
one-EMPH horn moreover tooth-ADJ-RED
301. would grow to be Boktu-Kiris the actual elder brother,


er kizi bo-op xuul-up
male individual PROB-CV change.into-CV

al-gas-ti[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]
SBEN-SS-GEN
70. Divination is even now widely practiced within Tuva, and is through simply no means
limited to specialist practitioners (e.g., shamans). "Well, how are we supposed to check it?" the particular Khan
asked.


ce, xaan carli-in-dan ert-ken cuve eves?
okay khan announcement-3-ABL pass.by-PST PN NEG
264. oon suggestion < og tiger 'to set up / pitch / construct a
yurt'.

Mongus, M. The Particular Tuvan epic tale represents a full period income but
endangered oral genre involving considerable antiquity. he could butcher wild animals, sharpen tools, do blacksmithing
and carpentry.


bora-seelej kis di[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]ma-zi
B-S girl younger.sibling-3
33. When upon the time, the woman's elder brother Boktu-Kiris


arga sin-dan a[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]na-p
forest mountain.ridge-ADL hunt-CV

coru-t-kas,
go-PERF-SS
39. a Russian loanword komanda 'command', employed here,
forms an agentive noun along with verb. Just About All the particular men kept shooting until evening,


ca[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]gi-zi- sogun-u cet-pe-en.
ni[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]=daa
single-3-GEN=EMPH arrow-3 reach-NEG-PST
176. nevertheless exactly what can I do, my elder brothers?


cerle saam mindig kizi dir men, dep
always FIG like person =DEIC I QUOT
173. Bora-Seelei his younger sister


aki-zi-ni[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] azi-i-n
elder.brother-3-GEN bitter(ness)-3-ACC

azi-p,
swallow-CV
61. Kara-Chuvelekti, your brave son associated with Karaty Khan.


edert-ip al-gan bo kattir-z-ip, kilasta-z-ip
follow.with-CV SBEN-PST this laugh-RCP-CV walk-RCP-CV

olur-gan-nar.
AUX-PST-PL
374. When anyone have to piss,


kas-ti[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] xaaj-i-n kodur-up
goose-GEN bill-3-ACC raise-CV

sikte-er-i[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]-ge
piss-PF-2-DAT
289. These kind of wild, predatory animals had been any cruel bear,


ajiil-dig arzila[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], xan-ga
danger-ADJ lion blood-DAT

pok-pes kok buru,
quench-NEGF gray/blue wolf
146. In
expeditions undertaken within Tuvan as well as Mongolia inside 1995, 1998, 2000, and
2003, the author discovered no competent storytellers beneath the actual get older of
forty-five. Your Woman right away passed the actual men have been running means over
there.


caa! er-ler cer ortu-zu bezin cet-pe-en-de,
EXCL male-PL place middle-3 even reach-NEG-PST-LOC
316. as well as allow piss trickle out via it," the particular horse said,
didn't he?


ol-la xeveer kil-ip al-gas
that-EMPH the.same do-CV SBEN-SS
291. with the 1st shot.


iji dugaar oog-u-n kuluguru[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII],
two ORD shot-3-ACC hero

deerge, sogun-u-n
POST arrow-3-ACC
189. Whenever they will questioned him he said: "My elder brothers,


cerle moorej-ge kir-z-ip kor-be-en bol-gas
always/still competition-DAT enter-RCP-CV see-NEG-PST COP-SS
166. Nevertheless the particular Khan's spy, that knew all the secrets, ran quickly
to him


kula-an-ga simiran-ip=tir. While soon because the horse stated so, what could younger sister
Bora-Seelei do?


ol-gen aki-zi-n iri-ves, cidi-vas
die-PST elder.brother-3-ACC rot-NEGF stink-NEGF
118. Throughout fact, such tales, alongside with
shamans' songs (Kenin-Lopsan 1994) along with other sacred texts, provide
the main supply with regard to knowledge concerning this belief system.

12. Tuvan arzila[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], the common Turkic
word reborrowed into Tuvan via Mongolian (Tatarintsev 2002), denotes a
lion, but additionally a new mythical beast frequently depicted like a beneficent protector.

______. Schiefner. Listeners may coming from time for you personally to time onsite visit sijaan, intended to
urge on the teller in his or her performance. then you'll definitely improve the beak of the goose in order to piss,


inaar sari[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]ajn-ip-la ber-gej dep
there run.out.noisily-CV-EMPH INCH-CNCL QUOT

mindza-p=tir eves be.
do.thusly-CV=DEIC NEG QUES
290. along with traveled back for the homeland.


aal-i-ni[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] coog-un-ga cor-up
yurt.camp-3-GEN proximity-3-DAT go-CV

kel-ges-ti[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]:
CLOC-SS-GEN
338. say-PF striped

tajga-ni[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]
taiga-GEN
277. (I was) monitoring animals, galloping along,


xajirakan u[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]gur-u-n kor-be-en,
bear cave-3-ACC see-NEG-PST
55. making new recordings throughout digital video ought for you to be an urgent
priority, given the perilous status in the genre.

13. The Actual briefest of those wonderfully interesting tales,


on bes-le minut bol-gas doos-t-u be-er kiska
ten five-EMPH minute be-ss finish-PERF-CV AUX-PF brief

tool-du,
tale-ACC
4. Following getting talked to people,


am daarta ada-an moorej egele-er.
now tomorrow call-PST competition begin-PF
128. Throat-singing doesn't seem
to have been any necessary a part of tale-telling, that needs only
minimal, recitative-style singing. And Also having shot by means of the particular flat shoulder blade of it,


kara baar-i-n us-ta ad-ip un-dur-up-ken
black liver-3-ACC out-LOC shoot-CV go.out-CAUS-CV-PST
187. the 4 of these together,


do[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] cer-ge o-o-n ti-p,
hill land-DAT yurt-3-ACC set.up-CV (23)
377. And Also Sang Khan's lovely daughter, your golden princess
Angyr-Chechen,


koz-up ced-ip ke-er-ge,
move/migrate-CV arrive-CV CLOC-PF-DAT
349. you are usually not a woman, are you, friend?" questioned the
other men.


aa! espi, cuu=daa bol-gaj-la men,
EXCL woman what=EMPH COP-CNCL-EMPH I
171. along with becoming more aggressive.


xaan-ni[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] kadig xoojlu-zun-ga
khan-GEN firm law-3-DAT
150. the rich, wonderful, and plentiful excellent time it was, so that they really say.


sijaan am aralcala-ar ciraa sajak
FORM FORM change.gait-PF brown.with.black.mane.and.tail mixed.gait
11. S. Whilst they were questioning and gaping,


doo kamandilak-ci=daa (20) kamandi-la-j ber-gen dir.
that command-AGENT=EMPH command-VSF-CV INCH-PST DEIC
304. standard Tuvan iji 'two'.

The variation presented here ended up being informed in August 1998 by Mr.
Sojdak-ool Xovalig (b. Anderson, Dr.
Theodore Levin, and Stefan Kamola pertaining to assessing drafts, and also Robbie Hart along with Luke Smith regarding editing final copy. Ed. but not the single one of their arrows reached the particular target.


adak soolun-de boktu-kiris dep at-tig,
very end-LOC B-K QUOT name-ADJ
177. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. I'm additionally giving him the good 50 % of my livestock,"


xaan carlig un-dur-gen.
khan announcement go.out-CAUS-PST
330. younger sister Bora-Seelei sat there naked.


xamik er-ni[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] kara-a deerge bo
all male-GEN eye-3 POST that

boktu-kiris dep er-de:
B-K QUOT male-LOC
295. but regardless how significantly she could have cried,


azik duza cog-u-n bil-ip ka-ap-kas, igla-ar-i-n
use help NEG-3-ACC find.out-CV AUX-PERF-SS cry-PF-3-ACC

soska-di-p-kas-ti[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII],
stop-CAUS-PERF-SS-GEN
64. S., along with K. the girl understood in which crying was useless as well as help, consequently the lady made
herself quit crying.


ol-gen aki-zi-n kandza-p dirgizi-p al-ir co-or dees,
die-PST brother-3-ACC do.how-CV make.live-CV SBEN-PF AUX-PF POST,
65. An itinerant storyteller (tooldzu) might visit a nomadic encampment for an extended
period, telling any single epic story within installments over the succession of
evenings. Within the
transcription offered here morpheme boundaries tend to be marked by hyphens
in both the first tier (phonemic transcription) and also 2nd tier
(morpho-syntactic tagging). When the lady looked over herself
in the mirror,


kirbej kara sal-dig, coon kara kezege-lig,
short/thin black beard-ADJ thick black braid-ADJ
84. The Actual tale along with accompanying
analysis afford insights in to Tuvan grammatical structures,
performativity, oral genres, as well as the culture of Inner Asian nomads. I'm furthermore giving 1 / 2 of most associated with my mighty army and also slaves.


mal -magan-im-ni[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] ekki
livestock -FIG-I-GEN good

carti-i-n baza ber-ip tur men, dep
half-3-ACC in addition give-CV AUX I QUOT
329. Tagging conventions largely follow
those used in a current grammar associated with Tuvan (Anderson as well as Harrison 1999).
For a fuller dialogue regarding Tuvan grammar, I refer the reader to that
work. 1994. Adults
present assumed the classic seated pose using 1 knee up, one leg
folded under. she began to create the woman's elder brother Boktu-Kiris by changing
herself in to him.


xuul-up xuul-up al-gas,
change.into-CV change.into-CV SBEN-SS
82. "What shall I do now, my great horse?


daarta suptu-zu salda[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]
tomorrow everybody-3 naked

carzi-ir cuve=dir,
race.horse-PF PN=DEIC
273. 1857. an individual can not alteration of any way.


indzalza=daa janzi=buru arga-lar-ni azig-la-p
nonetheless=EMPH different=QUAN methods-PL-ACC use-VSF-CV

tur-gas-ti[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]
AUX-SS-GEN
101. born to rule inside the lands straight towards the north,


sa[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]
S.

xaan-ni[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] aldin caras kiz-i
X.-GEN golden lovely girl-3
107. David Harrison. Therefore that her dead elder brother wouldn't normally rot and stink,


do[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] et=deg kil-di-r
frozen meat=like do-CAUS-PF

do[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]-ur
freeze-PF

tarbida-p-kas-ti[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII],
do.magically-PERF-SS-GEN
119. Vostochnoi Literatury.

Tatarintsev, B. That Will is simply the way in which I am," he said,


sak mindza-p tur-up-la kal-gan-na, mindig.
exactly do.thus-CV stand-CV-EMPH stay-PST-EMPH thus
174. since the princess possessed such strong magic.


so -tolge korgus-ken=dir.
divining -bones show-PST=DEIC
78. Tomorrow during the wrestling, state that everybody must wrestle
naked, shirtless.


indzan kis kizi-ni[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] iji emi-i
thus girl person-GEN a couple of breast-3

kost-u-le ber-gej!
show-CV-EMPH INCH-CNCL
207. and desired to become able to acquire every 1 of the Khan's prizes,


so kimci-la-t-kas, ojla-di-p-kan.
strongly riding.crop-VSF-CAUS-SS chase.away-CAUS-PERF-PST
333. Punctuation within the
phonemic tier signifies phrasing).

Taube, Erika. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. He wistfully recounted in which his prize had been "twelve tea
bowls plus an empty thermos." This particular modest winning prize may end up being compared to
the horse and cash reward awarded inside the biennial throat-singing
competition and the new vehicle awarded annually towards the very best Tuvan wrestler.
Professional throat-singers using whom mcdougal discussed the actual status
and insufficient assistance for the epic tale genre expressed little desire to
learn it personally or perhaps incorporate it into their repertoires. place on her behalf brother's shoes and clothes,


ca -sogun-u-n cukte-es-ti[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII],
bow -arrow-3-ACC take.on-SS-GEN

ajan-kula at-ti mun-gas-ti[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII],
A-K horse-ACC mount/ride-SS-GEN
123. The idea may end up being the pre-Buddhist Tuvan animist cosmology in which appears throughout epic tales. Bora-Seelei his younger sister


so -tolge sal-ir kizi cuu bo-or,
divining -bones do-PF PN DISC PROB-PF
42. Sojdak-ool Xovalig, for you to whom I am
deeply grateful. there's the short-haired hide of the bear which was shot down
in early autumn.


sak ol xajirakan keez-i-n
very.same that will bear hide-2-ACC
220. encamped their particular yurt around the hilly lands,


dolem cer-ge mal-i-n cala-p,
high land-DAT livestock-3-ACC invite-CV
378. mountain-GEN side-3-ALL go.out-CV

ber-gen.
INCH-PST
321. "Tomorrow everybody will race about horseback naked!"


onu di[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]na-p
thatACC hear-CV

ka-as-ti[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] boktu-kiris aki-zi
AUX-SS-GEN B-K elder.brother-3

bo-op
PROB-CV
269. azi-tol (compound noun) 'descendants, offspring'.

22. as well as using her slaves,"


sa[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] xaan mindig carlik
S. The Actual verb meaning 'see', employed here as an auxiliary,
denotes a polite request, as will the employment of the next person plural suffix on the form addressed to a single individual.

8. she nevertheless had the girl woman's genitals, the identical as before, so
it seemed.


am kandzal-zi-m-za ekki=l? dep
now do.thusly-COND-1SG-COND good=DEIC QUOT
96. Dialect form; cf. well that's that.


indzan duk-tug xorek-tig er=la bo-or dir sen.
then hair-ADJ chest-ADJ male-EMPH PROB-PF DEIC you
224. Becoming changed in to the girl poor brother Boktu-Kiris,


bora-seelej kis di[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]ma-zi=daa
B-S girl younger.sibling-3=EMPH

xurez-ip kir-ip<le>-t-ken.
wrestle-CV INCH-PERF<EMPH>-CAUS-PST
241. and also whispered throughout his ear: "It's so, weird, my dear
Khan,


ol boktu-kiris dep tur-ar kizi-[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]er
that B-K QUOT AUX-PF person-2PL
260. These kind of are the following:

THE STORYTELLER AND THE SETTING

Menges, K. as well as surely arrive running (to me)," the girl said, working her
magic.


sinap-la tur-a xal-ip kel-ges:
truly-EMPH stand.up-CV run-CV CLOC-SS
361. and also livestock reaching higher than their heads.


ovur cer-ni[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] ozen-in-ge
southern place-GEN hollow-3-DAT

do[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]-ne-p xavir-ar
hill-VSF-CV round.up-PF
19. among those white geese,


cuduruk=deg mocak kizil xaaj-lig askir ak kas bar=dir.
fist=like large red bill-ADJ male white goose COP=DEIC
280. It
is prefaced having a commentary describing your cultural context regarding epic
tales, the actual social context of this endangered genre, as well as structural
(linguistic) facets of the tale itself. Your unit cilgi denotes a herd involving (about) forty horses.

(i) frequent use regarding emphatic/focus enclitic =daa ~ =taa (line 37),
and emphatic/focus suffix -la ~ -na ~ -le ~ -ne (lines 38, 40).

10. and the peasants of the Khan's state, creating dangerous
conditions,


kalcaara-p tur-gan araattan-nar.
get.aggressive-CV AUX-PST wild.animal-PL
149. a typical nomadic
camp (aal) will have from 2 in order to 5 yurts housing through two to eight
people, usually just about all members of a long kin group. younger sister Bora-Seelei ended up being produced to start wrestling.


dendii siirak moge devi-p ke-er orta
very strong wrestler perform.eagle.dance-CV come-PF while
242. of that you will find many various versons.


ol kajgamcik-tig solun
this wonderful-ADJ interesting

tool-dar-ni[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]
tale-PL-GEN

e[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]-ne kiska-zi-n,
most-EMPH brief-3-ACC
3. Recorded inside August 1998 close to Aryg-Uzuu village inside central Tuva,
on Hi8 digital videotape as well as DAT audio tape, assisted by Mr. Abbreviations pertaining to morpho-syntactic tags are
given after the article. Etymologicheskij slovar' tuvinskogo
iazyka: Tom I. Xovalig donned a conventional Tuvan robe and also hat. together using its neck, as well as help to make from their particular store a man's
genitals,


kis xindi-i[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]-ni duj
girl genital-2-ACC shut.tight

xirba-la-n-di-r tarbid-ip
glue-VSF-PASS-CAUS-PF do.magically-CV

aar-i[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]-ga
AUX-2SG-DAT
286. ole-bula can be a compound, which in general means 'gray'.
Compounds are generally shown inside the phonemic tier herein as 2 elements
separated by means of a tab-space, with a hyphen inserted before the next one.
In Tuvan, 1 as well as both com-pounded functions might absence impartial lexical
meaning.

Levin, Theodore, together with Valentina Suzukei. what exactly should I do with regards to my woman's genitals?"


at tur-gas mindza de-en=dir:
horse AUX-SS thusly say-PST=DEIC
275. and using the running speed of a gray hare, your woman ran far away.


doo xal-c-ip bar-ip cit-kan er-ler-ni doraan ert-ken.
DIST run-RCP-CV go-CV AUX-PST male-PL-ACC right.away pass-PST
315. Bora-Seelei his younger sister


mal-i-n maga-ni-n kadar-ar xavir-ar,
livestock-3-ACC cattle-3-ACC herd-PF round.up-PF
34. 2002. Method more than there inside a striped mountain forest referred to always be able to as Arzaity,


aar iji-ni[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] xol-de xoj-le
northern side-GEN lake-LOC many-EMPH

ak kas-tar est-ip tur-lar.
white geese-PL swim-CV AUX-PL
278. He lamented that
the dimension and interest length of his audiences had dwindled with the
popularity of television as well as "Jackie Chan" motion films on
video.

THE TUVAN EPIC TALEStorytelling once was the profession inside Tuva, also as an avocation
practiced by each men and women living as nomadic herders. male great master-1
57. for example, lines 242-53
consist regarding 4 teams of 3 lines, every beginning with a similar
consonant (d d t / e e e / k x x / k k k). Then the hero, taking the third arrow,


tirt-ip tirt-ip tirt-ip tirt-ip sal-gan-na.
pull-CV pull-CV pull-CV pull-CV put-PST-EMPH
194. (what would happen) if Bora-Seelei the particular younger sister


boktu-kiris aki-zi bo-op,
B-K elder.brother-3 PROB-CV
69. The Actual end.


adis caska-ar!
palm clap-PF
381. and as pertaining to his genitals, his testicles tend to be as hefty as a
teapot,


kizi=daa u=ur arga cok.
person=EMPH lift-PF indicates NEG.COP.
299. as well as peeled off its skin, take the white gander's parts,


er kizi-ni[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] xap-ci-i kil-di-r,
male person-GEN sack-DIM-3 do-CAUS-PF
283. It turns out that everybody will have to wrestle shirtless and
naked tomorrow.


iji emi-im-ni kandza-p-tajn? (16) dep indza-p ajtir-ip=tir
two breast-1-ACC do.how-PERF-1MOD QUOT do.thus-CV ask-CV=DEIC

eves be.
NEG QUES
215. Your text introduced the next is a
phonemic transcription, with annotation and translation, of the short
version with the tale advised in 1998 by a prominent Tuvan storyteller, Mr.
Sojdak-ool Xapilakovic Xovalig (born 1929). filled up the meals and also milk containers,


daarani-ir-i-n, suptu kil-ir,
sew-PF-3-ACC every thing do-PF
36. A New variety of motifs common to
folktales the entire world more than appear inside Boktu-Kiris. We arrived from their particular camp in concerning 7:00 A.M. orta coor be, kuzur xaan-im?
ear-3-DAT whisper-CV=DEIC middle/right what QUES dear khan-1
259. failed to shoot, but just walked about similar to this.


bo kandaaj er sen?
this what.kind.ofAMEL male you
163. he shot its round head right off.


bir dugaar moorej-ni murnuu cuk-ten kel-gen anijak
one ORD competition-ACC southern direction-ABL come-PST young

er,
male
197. when you've magically glued shut your current woman's
genitals along with them,


ol-la=dir!
DEIC-EMPH=DEIC
287. along with along with most that, bear's tresses are expanding out of it.


bo xindi-i deerge, bo xap-ci-i deerge bir-le
that genitals-3 POST those sack-DIM-3 POST one-EMPH

do[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]guu=deg,
teapot=like
298. As Well As his horse Ajan-Kula stood crying from his side, so it seemed.


sijan am bora-seelej kis di[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]ma-zi,
FORM FORM BS girl younger.sibling-3
47. Leipzig: Kiepenheuer.

Tuvan epic storytelling is now any seriously endangered genre. were going to marry, right?


duz-um dep boda-an-im,
dream-1 COMP think-PST-1
366. To Always Be Able To discover how the girl could make the girl dead brother are living again,


so -tolge sal-a ber-ipt-ir.
divining -bones place-CV INCH-PERF-PF
66. Tuwinische Volksmarchen. Press.

(ii) mention involving the antagonists making use of full names in addition kinship terms,
which seem within 3SG possessed form, e.g., 'his younger
sister', 'her elder brother' (lines 29, 33).

2. and she sat along with cried and also cried.


[Sung recitative ends with range 62; spoken narrative style is actually used
hereafter.]

indzalza-daa ceze=daa igla-ar-ga
nonetheless=EMPH however.much=EMPH cry-PF-DAT
63. overcoming and also winning all the competitions,


cige so[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]gu cuk-tu
straight north direction-ACC

ezel-ej tore-en
rule/occupy-CV be.born-PST
106. Extra palatalization upon final consonants (e.g., [[t.sup.j]]
instead of expected [t]) marks a unique ameliorative or pejorative register, considered vulgar along with colloquial vis-a-vis regular Tuvan.

None regarding this function would happen to be feasible with out your ability and
generosity with the storyteller, Mr. so I'm afraid,


korg-up, cure-em cagdat-pajn tur, dep mindig.
fear-CV heart-1 come.up-NEGF AUX QUOT thus
168. if the deer along with doe, the actual wild elk stag along with elk doe overflowed
from their particular woods,


arga cu[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]ma, kojgun, torlaa
forest wild.mountain.goat hare grouse

arga-zin-ga si[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]i-s-pas,
forest-3-DAT fit.into-RCP-NEGF
9. 1960. "Well, the actual yurt camp isn't definately not here,


men og oog-u-n az-ip cida-jin,
I yurt button-3-ACC open-CV AUX-IMOD

de-es-ti[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII],
say-SS-GEN
340. "What kind of man is actually this? with this kind of chest,


bir-le xajirakan dug-u un-up kel-gen
one-EMPH bear hair-3 grow.up-CV CLOC-PST

boor-u-nu[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] kir-in-da,
PROB-3-GEN top-3-LOC
297. and sat down among the many wrestlers.


xamik moge-ler-ni[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII],
all wrestler-PL-GEN

moorej-ci-ler-ni[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII],
competition-AGENT-PL-GEN

er-ler-ni[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] kara-a
male-PL-GEN eye-3
229. yet merely took around the operating speed of your gray hare.


bora -toolaj ma[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]-i=bile
gray -hare run-3=INS

ma[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII],na-p
run-CV

i[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII],aj-la bol-gan.
away.from-EMPH COP-PST
314. along with magically thawed him out,


bod-u castin-a ber-gen.
self-3 hide.self-CV INCH-PST
347. I'm giving him as getting a wife my beautiful daughter.


a[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]gir-cecen aldin
A-C golden

da[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]gina-m-ni
princess-1-ACC
326. on its northern aspect in the lake are generally swimming a new lot of white
geese.


ol ak kas-tar-ni[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] arazin-da
this white geese-PL-GEN among-LOC
279. 257. Recordings from the 1960s
and later on are generally effectively unavailable, current only upon reel-to-reel and
other legacy format tapes in the archives of the Tuvan Institute for
Humanitarian Researches (TIGI) positioned in Tuva's capital city of
Kyzyl. that's that!


sidi-i[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] kistig-a ber-ze,
piss-2 flow.out-CV INCH-COND
288. He must even now involve some bear ancestry,


kizi xurezi-ir=daa arga cok,
person wrestle-PF=EMPH indicates NEG
236. As Well As your deceitful spy, which lied


xaan-ni[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] xamik
khan-GEN all

sa[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]nal-i-n cettir-ip tur-ar-i
prize-3-ACC desire/seek-CV AUX-PF-3

dees-ti[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII],
AUX-GEN
332. and along with most that, it has bear locks growing from it.


bo=daa xajirakan-dan uktal-gan, anaa cerle,
this=EMPH bear-ABL originate-PST just still
235. Therefore the Khan created an announcement:


daarta suptu salda[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]
tomorrow everybody naked

carzi-ir!
ride.horse-PF
268. the eagle dance (ezir sam) can always be a mimetic display which begins and
ends Tuvan traditional wrestling matches. Linguists happen in order to be audio-recording Tuvan oral
genres since at least 1962 (Orus-ool 1997). cut out a new round piece which will match your current chest,


iji emi-i[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]-ni duj (17)
two breast-2-ACC tightly.fit

xirbala-n-dir cispir
glue-PASS-CAUSIMP stickIMP

tari-di-pt-ar-i[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]-ga
fit-CAUS-PERF-PF-2-DAT
222. 1996. As soon As upon a period ...


[sung recitative design starts off with range 6]

sijaan am, erte[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]gi- erte-zin-de,
ni[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]
FORM FORM morning-GEN early-3-LOC

burungu-nu[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] murnun-da,
long.ago-GEN before-LOC
6. 1980. 1995. in regular Tuvan, your man which begins a
race can be known as idikci or salikci; like a verb it really is idar, salir.

Katanov, N. The Actual video
shows the actual tale told throughout its natural environment at a nomadic camp, to some Tuvan
audience, along with domestic animals as well as ambient sounds. found the woman's husband, who had just produced her operate (to the yurt),


ol-up kal-gan, orun kirin-da bo cit-kan
die-CV AUX-PST bed top-LOC DEIC lie-PST
351. Nor is
there any obvious reason they should. Although dance skill has
no bearing around the outcome of a match, it's intended for you to intimidate the
opponent and display one's physique and prowess before the match
(and afterwards as well, for the victor). Boktu-kiris, Bora-seelei. Oral Epics regarding Central
Asia. "A poor horse such as me, what could I do?


a[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] sivir-ip cugur-up olur-gas,
animal chase-CV run-CV AUX-SS
54. Inspirational practitioners known as xam
("shamans") were and remain a traditional accompaniment
(though not necessarily an essential element) towards the practice regarding animism. Kyzyl: Novosti Tuvy.

(vi) special narrative past form, constructed with your supplement of to a verb root exactly the same topic marker adopted by the genitive case marker (lines
52, 58).

A TUVAN HERO TALE: BOKTU-KIRIS BORA-SEELEI


tiva ulustu[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] boktu-kiris, bora-seelej
Tuvan people-GEN Boktu-Kiris Bora-Seelei

dep,
QUOT
1. My golden princess Angyr-Chechen


a kude-em-ge boktu-kiris kude-em-ge ber-ip tur men,
and son.in.law-1-DAT B-K son.in.law-1-DAT give-CV AUX I
327. that they evened out your vales and hills,


curtta-p cor-uj bar-ip=tir ooo!
live-CV go-CV TLOC-PERF=DEIC DISC
380. however, not any single man's arrow reached the actual targets.


boktu-kiris dep at-tig, kirbej kara sal-dig er,
B-K QUOT name-ADJ brief black beard-ADJ male
160. Amazingly rich, wealthy, (6) and hard-working


aliski-lar, cuve[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]
sibling-PL DISC

irgin iji[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]
DISC DISC

o[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII].
DISC
28. For You To your dismay involving the
entire camp, one horse had disappeared in your course of the night and also had been presumed
stolen. put out its black liver


bir dugaar oog-u=bile.
one ORD shot-3=INS
188. having done exactly so,


daarta=daa xoj er-ni[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]
tomorrow=EMPH many male-GEN

ara-zin-ga
space.between-3-DAT
292. "Even although I've changed, what excellent will be it?"


ajan-kula ad-in-dan ajtir-gan=dir.
A-K horse-3-ABL ask-PST=DEIC
97. Any Kind Of mistakes rest using the author.

(viii) special phrasing, prosody, as well as intonation (not described
herein, however could end up being observed by viewing the particular video clip).

With the particular exception of (viii) via (x), none of these features
individually marks your narrative as an epic tale, but taken just about all together
they unmistakably characterize the actual genre.

K. Ajan-Kula said:


men iskas bagaj in kajda bo-or,
Me just like poor/bad horse where.to PROB-PF
53. 1969. navel, bellybutton, 2.
genitals, 3. Most the men began to make the actual arrows shoot.


dus-ke ced-ir at-kan xoj
noon-DAT reach-PF shoot-PST many

eri[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] deerge,
male POST
158. However the actual one that had changed into your ex brother Boktu-Kiris,


bora-seelej kis di[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]ma-zi tur-up
B-S girl younger-sibling-3 stand-CV

kal-gan.
remains-PST
308. Although the actual routine is actually mostly
fixed, individual wrestlers' creativity in executing dance actions is
appreciated and also cheered on by simply spectators.

. I. Press.

The tale shown here, Boktu-Kiris Bora-Seelei, can become a hero tale
(Grebnev 1960), the continuation involving a historical oral tradition. and the man just held standing right there because exact same way.


er<ler>i[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] kezee-ge ced-ir
male<PL> evening-DAT reach-PF

at-kan,
shoot-PST
175. Any shorter version numbering 5,060 lines using parallel
free translation into Russian had been revealed in 1997 through the Russian
Academy of Sciences (Orus-ool 1997). Boktu-Kiris, has won.


caras kiz-im-ni kadaj kil-di-r ber-ip tur men,
beautiful girl-1-ACC wife do-CAUS give-CV AUX I
325. Novosibirsk: Nauka.

Anderson, Gregory D. Gregory D. Moscow:
Izdat. As the elder brother Boktu-Kiris, as a man,


bugu-le moorej-ler-ni az-ip
all-EMPH competition-PL-ACC go.over-CV

un-ges-ti[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII],
go.out-SS-GEN
105. I. Inside a new forest on the northern slope


do[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]-ne-p xavir-ar ala -sokar
hill-VSF-CV round.up-PF striped -spotted

inek-ter-lig,
cow-PL-ADJ
22. making him fall down in a flash.


kondzug siirak moge korgu-du-p kel-ir orta
very strong wrestler fear-CAUS-CV come-PF while
251. baj siirak actually 'rich strong', meaning 'very
rich'.

5. When the girl had laid out the particular divining bones, she observed (that)


aki-zi arzajti de-er ala
elder.brother-3 A. began his bow along with arrows, mounted the horse Ajan-Kula,


cige so[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]gu cuk-ce
straight north direction-ALL

uzu-du-p coru-p-kan.
fly.away-CAUS-CV go-PERF.PST
124. He was heading along, wasn't
he?


sijaan am boktu-kiris, bora-seelej
FORM FORM B-K, B-S
16. So, even your poorest men began for you to prepare for your competition.


daarta xun-de xamik er cuu bo-or,
tomorrow day-LOC almost all male DEIC PROB-CV
140. Inside the nine-layered saddle blanket owned by your
brother,


erte kuzun at-kan tas duk-tug xajirakan keez-i
early in.autumn shoot-CV short.haired hair-ADJ bear skin-3

bar.
COP
219. ended up being splendid as gold, handsomely dressed (Boktu-Kiris),


bora-seelej kis di[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]ma-lig,
B-S girl younger.sibling-ADJ
14. Xovalig
recalls studying tales in a small get older through his grandmother as well as others,
and, as a possible adult, reciting them throughout his several hours traveling combines
in the wheat fields. a hazardous lion, (11) plus a bloodthirsty gray wolf.


ol xaan kurune-ni[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] mal
that khan state-GEN cattle

-magan-in-ga
-livestock-3-DAT

a[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]-me[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]-in-
ge,
animal-RED-3-DAT
147. the girl began to formulate your ex divining bones. In the actual foot regarding Songu-Tangdy mountain,


us araattan a[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]-nar-ni ilcirbe-le-p
three wild animal-PL-ACC chain-VSF-CV

ka-an.
AUX-PST
144. International Journal
of Central Asian Research 1: 225-43.

(iv) alliteration of initial words throughout successive or even paired lines
(lines 25, 26, 27 and also lines 185, 186, 187 most start with [k]). pulled, pulled, pulled, pulled back and allow fly.


xan-ga pok-pes kok boru-nu[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]
blood-DAT quench-NEGF blue wolf-GEN

moon-u-n bodurede at-kas,
guts-3-ACC SYMB (12) shoot-ss
195. together along with her lover,


karati xaan-ni[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] kajgal ogl-u kara
Karaty Khan-GEN brave son-3 Kara

cuvelekti-ni
Cuvelekti-ACC
373. magically concealed your cave's mouth having a vertical
cliff,


aki-zi-ni[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] burun idik -xev-i-n
elder.brother-3-GEN most shoe -clothing-3-ACC

ket-kes,
put.on.clothing-ss
122. Kyzyl: TNUC.

(v) emphatic prefixing reduplication (line 49).

18. and have gone about living there at virtually any time since. the particular following day on this list of numerous men,


kuzur boktu-kiris aki-zi bo-op xuul-up al-gan
poor B-K elder.brother-3 PROB-CV change-CV SBEN-PST
293. Sang Khan's beautiful daughter, golden princess
Angyr-Chechen, along with I


kudala-p tur-gan bol-du-m cop!
marry-CV AUX-PST be-REC.PST-l DISC
365. Getting heard this, she which had changed into your ex elder brother
Boktu-Kiris,


bora-seelej kis di[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]ma-zi
B-S girl younger.sister-3
211. Verify it tomorrow throughout the horserace," he said.


ce, kandza-ar xina-ar ulus bis? dep.
DISC do.how-PF check-PF PN we QUOT
263. As soon As upon a time, (riding along) on a mixed-gait brown horse
with black mane along with tail,


ajan-kula at-tig
A-K horse-ADJ
12. as well as dropped him upside down along with his head.


emin orta siirak moge eskededi-p kel-ir orta
very middle strong wrestler strut-CV CLOC-PF while
245. Press.

(ix) recitative-style singing (lines 6-62).

When this author 1st approached Mr. Simply By profession any combine driver on the collective farm, Mr. The Girl took out your ex silver ring,


mee[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] asa-am boktu-kiris sin
my husband-1 B-K true

bol-za,
COP-COND
354. in this dream regarding mine,


sa[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]
S.

xaan-ni[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] caras kiz-i,
X.-GEN lovely girl-3

a[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]gir-cecen aldin
A-C golden

da[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]gina-ni
princess-ACC
364. Your Woman sets out, armed just with her extremely own wits, her magical powers, a
bow as well as arrows, as well as clever talking horse. flung him more than your ex shoulder, and also threw him down.


kajgamcik siirak moge xal-ip ke-er orta,
amazing strong wrestler run-CV CLOC-PF while
248. having brought him along with positioned him on the bed within the yurt,


ergiz-ip tarbida-p ka-as-ti[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII],
thaw-CV do.magically-CV AUX-SS-GEN
346. born for you to rule the particular lands immediately to the north.


sa[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]
S.

xaan-ni[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] caras kiz-i
X.-GEN gorgeous girl-3
72. Your eyes of all the wrestlers, competitors, as well as other men


boktu-kiris dep anijak er-ni[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]
B-K QUOT small male-GEN

xore-en-de.
chest-3-LOC
230. 1997. So, she didn't actually change directly into one,


a bora -toolaj-ni[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]
but gray -hare-GEN

ma[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]-i-n ke-ep
run-3-ACC CLOC-CV

ap-kas-ti[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII],
take-SS-GEN
313. Berlin:
Akademie-Verlag.

Levin, Theodore, and also Michael Edgerton. three competition

carla-an.
announce-PST
129. Versuch einer koibalischen und karagassischen
Sprachlehre. nevertheless I really does marry,


al-gan kizi iskaz=il men,
SBEN-PST PN as.if=DEIC I

de-es-ti[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]
AUX-SS-GEN
368. While my a couple of arms (7) went into that will hole as well as I suddenly fell
down,


boktu-kiris sajin er, ekki ee-m,
B-K S. Central Asiatic Journal 1: 107-36.

Grebnev, L. Your Woman had grow for you to be just being a bear, nevertheless nevertheless


kis kizi-ni[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] sin-i-n
girl person-GEN figure-3-ACC

kaasta-an,
decorate-PST
91. they will rounded up your striped and spotted cows.


xovu cer-ni[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] delgem-in-ge
field place-GEN wide.space-3-DAT
23. 1903. These types of range from the arming
of the actual warrior; wrestling; disguised identity, cross-dressing, and
gender play; a new talking horse in which offers advice; magical objects (e.g., a
ring); magical powers (e.g., divination, shape-changing ability);
successions of three (e.g., competitions, beasts, circumambulations);
the use of the cave as a hiding place; animals symbolizing particular traits
(e.g., hare = swiftness), and help to make use of associated with symbolic figures (e.g., three,
four, nine). one other men said.


indza-ar-ga=daa kuluguru[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]
do.thus-PF-DAT=EMPH hero

kezen-ip kir-ip<le>-t-ken.
prepare.to.shoot-CV INCH-PERF<EMPH>-CAUS-PST
181. Inside western Mongolia throughout 2000, the
author recorded a female storyteller, get older fifty-two, whose
nineteen-year-old son sat next for you to the woman's along with lip-synched many regarding her lines
as the lady advised the particular story, nevertheless would not himself consent to inform a new story
solo. I'm reluctant along with my coronary heart is not going to i want to do it," he
answered.


aa! sen=daa anaa espi-dej,
EXCL you=EMPH just woman-DIM
169. although carrying his bow and also arrows,


at-pas=taa, kilasta-p tur-ar, mindig.
shoot-NEG=EMPH walk-CV AUX-PF thus
162. lying there dead on best of the bed.


oon sool-un-de kondzug ertem silig-lig dangina=daa cuu
this behind-3-LOC extremely knowledge skill-ADI princess=EMPH DEIC

bo-or,
PROB-CV
352. Press.

______. the girl still stood a girl's figure,


caja-an caza-an iji emi-i xeveer,
create-PST carve-PST two breast-3 same.as.before
92. "Well, who does disregard an announcement from the Khan?


daarta suptu-zu-n salda[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]
tomorrow everybody-3-ACC naked

caris-tir-ivit.
ride.horse-CAUS-PERFIMP
265. the lady slipped among his legs with just about all the agility of the hare,


kurug cer-ge kurguldaj-i-n kuruldur olur-t-a
empty earth-DAT tailbone-3-ACC painfully sit.down-CAUS-CV
253. they rounded up the actual brown and yellow camels.


kaspal cer-ni[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] xaja-zin-ga
ravine place-GEN cliff-3-DAT

do[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]-ne-p xavir-ar
hill-VSF-CV round.up-PF
25. Your Woman put him to the mouth of the black cave,


ask-i-n budun turug xaja kil-d-ir duj
mouth-3-ACC total vertical cliff do-CAUS-PF tightly.shut

tarbida-p-kas-ti[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII],
do.by.magic-PERF-ss-GEN
121. For You To the particular winner involving these three competitions, to the bravest
suitor,


uru-um-nu kadaj kil-di-r be-er men,
daughter-1-ACC wife do-CAUS-PF give-PF I
135. Based on locally
available resources, these may be manufactured involving split logs, woven branches, or
stacked stones.

17. 1929), with the village of Arig-Uzuu inside central
Tuva. H. Tuvinskij geroicheskij epos. The Lady began to communicate along with Ajan-Kula, his horse.


ajan-kula tur-gas-ti[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]:
A-K AUX-SS-GEN
52. Kazan'.

Tuvan syntax follows SOV order and can be also seen as an pro-drop and
frequent use involving auxiliary verbs. Kyzyl: TNUC.

The Tuvan epic tale, called the tool, has 2 recognized subgenres:
maadirlig tool, 'hero tale', and also simply device (all some other types)
(Orus-ool 1997). While a very strong wrestler came up, waving his arms in an
eagle dance, (18)


deeldigen-ni[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] dezi-i=bile
kite-GEN speed-3=INS

degele-es-ti[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII],
trip.up-SS-GEN
243. and then his broken backbone healed.


ce, mee[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] asa-am boktu-kiris sin
okay my husband-1 B-K true

bol-za tur-a
COP-COND stand.up-CV
359. From a new cliff in a ravine these people rounded up


kazaa si[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]-mas
livestock.pen (5) fit.into-NEGF

xaragan=deg xoj osku-lug,
tumbleweed=like sheep goat-ADJ
26. Subsequent area expeditions throughout 2000-2004 were
funded by a grant coming from VolkswagenStiftung. the youngest family member, a seven-year-old girl was
exhorted from the eldest, a person of over eighty, for you to "listen
well!" and the tale began. and so it had been which his younger sister Bora-Seelei


xuul-upt-ar kizi cuu boor,
change.appearance-PERF-PF PN DEIC PROB
48. Using the particular opening phrases sijaan am, formulaic speech
roughly translatable as "once upon the time," the story would
begin. Opyt issledovanie uriankhaiskogo yazyka s
ukazaniem glavneishykh rodstvennykh otnosheniy ego k drugim yazykam
tyurkskogo kornya. Your many celebrated of those will end up being the Kyrgyz epic Manas,
said in order to comprise more than half a million lines. full-grown and also large just such as a wrestler's.


ana bir adig -maazalaj=deg, appar-gan=daa bol-za,
simply 1 bear -bear=like become-PST=EMPH COP-COND
90. and bring the woman's home, apparently," he said.


a[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]gir-cecen aldin
A-C golden

da[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]gina-ni
princess-ACC

kuluguru[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], deerge,
hero POST
369. Muslim Dorzu and also Mr. the South Siberian Turkic Languages, I: General
Characteristics of Their Particular Phonology. it was not proper on her to take on people.


indza-ar xuul-ba-jn,
do.thus-PF change-NEG-PST
312. the mountain goat, your hare, as well as the grouse overflowed from
their forests,


magadandzig baj bajlak ekki sag-da
wonderful rich plentiful good time-LOC

cuve[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] irgin.
DISC DISC
10. Your siblings had been incredibly skilled, so they say.


sijaan am bir-le kattap boktu-kiris aki-zi
FORM FORM one-EMPH when B-K elder.brother-3
38. Then you will be any hairy chested man!"


sak indza-ar xeveer kil-di-r kil-ip
the.very do.thus-PF the.same do-CAUS-PF do-CV

al-gas-ti[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII],
SBEN-SS-GEN
225. Regarding the announced competition is just with regards to for you to begin.


xamik kudee-ler, deerge,
all suitor-PL POST
114. He would end up being a brave archer,


bizani-ir, cazani-ir, dargan-na-ar,
butcher.wild.animal-PF sharpen-PF smith-VSF-PF

biza[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]-na-ar.
carpenter-VSF-CV
32. the lady tripped him with just about all the speed of a kite,


tej-i-n kudu kil-di-r duzur-up,
top.of.head-3-ACC downwards make-CAUS-PF fall-CV
244. being changed straight into the woman's poor brother Boktu-Kiris,


bora-seelej kis di[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]ma-zi
B-S girl younger.sibling-3

salda[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]nan-gas olur-up-kan.
get-naked-SS sit.down-PERF-PST
294. 1994. However although the lady had been changed into a gray hare,


kizi-ler=bile carzi-ir-ga taar-is-pas bol-gan-da
people-PL=INS compete-PF-DAT suit-RCP-NEGF be-PST-LOC
311. "First of all we are usually going to discover which is the bravest archer;


kudee-ler-ni[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] cas-pas ad-ar-i-n
suitor-PL-GEN miss-NEGF shoot-PF-3-ACC

ko-or ca -sogun=bile.
see-PF arrow -bow=INS
131. 1997. So, the particular Khan put out an announcement:


daarta suptu xojle[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] cok,
tomorrow everybody shirt NEG

canagas xurezi-ir!
naked wrestle-PF
209. He's this kind of strange creature!"


onu kajga-p tur-da=daa,
thatACC wonder-CV stand-LOC=EMPH
303. and the particular next day what does all the men do?


baski
B.

ta[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]di-ni[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]
T.-GEN

edeen-de
mountain.foot-LOC
141. Tuvinskie geroicheskie skazania. let his torn up guts recover,"


de-es domna-ar-ga,
say-ss do.magically-PF-DAT
357. Lamaizm v tuve. Budapeszt:
Trans-Oceanic Society.

Castren, M. Typical methods
include sheep knuckle bones (kazik), any sheep shoulder blade (carin)
burned inside the fire, and divining pebbles (xuvaanak). Along With as for the golden princess Angyr-Chechen,


citta-an, cilga-an, deerge, ana suut kizi magada-ar.
kiss-PST lick-PST POST just all person be.amazed-PF
370. 1992. your ex forehead has been steep, the woman's head ended up being shaved bald in front, and
her eyes were striped as well as large as being a tea-bowl.


albis sulbus aks-i=deg aazok ulug aas-tig,
devil demon mouth-3=like huge mouth-ADJ
86. their own sheep and also goats--they had been as numerous as tumbleweeds and
nearly didn't in shape within their pen.


kajgamcik-tig baj -siirak, azil -isci
amazing-ADJ rich -strong perform -effort
27. there's absolutely simply no way a individual could even lift them.


bo xindi-i deerge=dir kuskas=taa xaaj-i iskas,
that genitals-3 POST=DEIC bird=EMPH beak-3 like
300. as well as flew compared to always be able to that place.


ajan-kula ad-i=bile cugaala-z-i ber-ipt-ir.
A-K horse-3=INS speak-RCP-CV INCH-PERF-PF
51. (taking) Sang Khan's beautiful, golden daughter,


a[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]gir-cecen aldin
A-C golden

da[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]gina-ni
princess-ACC
108. Consequently the actual divining bones showed.


kuzur bora-seelej kis di[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]ma-zi,
poor B-S girl younger.sibling-3
79. along with took him out.


og orn-un-da ekke-p sal-gas,
yurt bed-3-LOC bring-CV put-ss,
345. Tuwinischer Lieder: Volksdichtung aus der
Westmongolei. (And he said) "Oh, fuck! did I oversleep?


bo duz-um-de
this dream-l-LOC
363. a story would typically can start evening teatime, following the
day's major outdoor chores ended up completed and the animals were
in the stockade. then pulled, pulled, pulled it again and shot.


karzi xajirakan-ni[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]
cruel bear-GEN

xava-a-ni[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] soog-u-n dez-e
forehead-3-GEN bone-3-ACC hit.through-CV

at-kas,
shoot-ss
185. 1997. along with take its fist-like huge red beak,


mojn-u=bile kattaj xaar-a er
neck-3=INS together create-CV male

kizi-ni[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] er xindi-i kil-d-ir
person-GEN male genital-3 make-CAUS-PF
285. Scientific American 281, no. His arrow broke right through the forehead bone in the cruel
bear.


kalbak carin-in ottur at-kas,
flat shoulder-blade-3-ACC crosswise shoot-ss
186. (She took) Sang Khan's stunning daughter,


a[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]gir-cecen aldin
A-C golden

da[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]gina-ni
princess-ACC
336. along with entered the
yurt to discover sleepy faces and inquisitive glances with Sojdak-ool's
announcement, "I'm likely to tell a new tale." Inside twenty
minutes folks had dressed along with washed, morning chores ended up partially
done, and also the horses let out of their stockades. "One, two, three!" as quickly because he counted down, all
the men


xak-kas sal-ij-la ber-gen.
hit-SS run.off-CV-EMPH INCH-PST
306. possibly kandzaptan[.sup.j], together with ameliorative final-consonant
palatalization.

MORPHO-SYNTACTIC TAGS


Boundary in between tags in portmanteau as well as zero morpheme
- morpheme boundary
= enclitic boundary
<> infixed element
1(SG) very first person singular
2(SG) second individual singular
3 third individual singular
ABL ablative case (enclitic)
ACC accusative case
ADJ adjectival suffix
ADL adlative case
AGENT agentive
ALL allative
AMEL ameliorative
AUX auxiliary verb
BEN benefactive voice
CAUS causative
CLOC cislocative
CNCL conciliatory mood
COMP complementizer
COND conditional mood
COP copula
CV converb
DAT dative case
DEIC deixis marker
DIM diminutive
DISC discourse
DIST distal
DUAL dual (1 & 2 SG)
EMPH emphatic
EXCL exclamation
F long term tense
F1 future tense 1SG
FIG figurative element
FORM formulaic speech
GEN genitive case
IMP imperative
INCH inchoative aspect
INS instrumental enclitic
LOC locative case
LEX lexical product located only throughout compounds, offers simply no meaning
MOD modal
NEG negation
NOM nominative case
ORD ordinal number
PASS passive
PERF perfective aspect
PF existing / future tense
PL plural
PN predicate noun
POST postposition
PROB probabilitive mood
PST past tense
QUAN quantifier
QUES query tag
QUOT quotative
RCP reciprocal
REC.PST current past tense
RED reduplicant
SBEN self-benefactive voice
SS identical subject
SYMB sound symbolic element
TLOC translocation
VSF verb stem formant
REFERENCES

Though Tuvans happen to be traditionally transhumant pastoralists and
hunters, most have become sedentary, living in villages as well as towns. X. Alexander Ondar; the actual latter also
assisted along with translation. I won't permit anyone see.


boktu-diris aki-[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] bo-op, er kizi
B-K elder.brother-2 PROB-CV male person

bo-op
PROB-CV
104. (and your woman said) "If it's truly my husband Boktu-Kiris,


si[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]-gan soog-u dutc-u ber-zin,
break-PST bone-3 connect-CV BEN-IMP3
355. swallowed your ex bitterness concerning your ex elder brother,


igla-p-la olur-gan, igla-p-la olur-gan, igla-p-la olur-gan.
cry-CV-EMPH AUX-PST cry-CV-EMPH AUX-PST cry-CV-EMPH AUX-PST
62. Then the actual Khan's spy, who secretly knew all,


xaan-ga sir-ma[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]=bile
khan-DAT SYMB-running=INS

kel-ges-ti[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], kula-an-ga simiran-gan
come-ss-GEN ear-3-DAT whisper-PST

cuve dir.
PN DEIC
200. 1994. would become a shape-changer.


boktu-kiris aki-zi kil-d-ir xuul-up-la
B-K elder.brother-3 do-CAUS-PF change.into-CV-EMPH

egele-en=dir.
begin-PST=DEIC
81. Nor could it be likely
to, given its relative lack of theatrics along with demanding linguistic
complexity. Morphologically, the actual language is almost
exclusively suffixing, and has agglutinating morphemes. As Well As her horse Ajan-Kula said:


ol deerge anaa, ko[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]gus anaa cuve
this POST fine just fine PN

dir.
DEIC
217. Audio symbolic with regard to clattering or even intensity.

(vii) archaisms, such as many compound types (lines 27, 31).

7. "You come running right after me," your woman said.


aal-in-ga xal-ip ced-e
yurt.camp-3-DAT run-CV reach-CV

ber-ges-ti[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII],
BEN-SS-GEN
342. Your horse not just talks as well as cries, however is actually anthropomorphized to
the extent he features 'arms' or even 'hands', certainly not legs
or hooves.

Chadwick, N. (And if he would take) the beautiful daughter of Sang Khan,


A[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]gir-cecen aldin
A-C golden

da[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]gina-ni kadaj kil-d-ir
princess-ACC wife do-CAUS-PF
73. Xovalig within 1998 along with the
request to tell section of an epic tale, he instantly agreed. Boktu-Kiris came running as significantly as that place, and what does the girl do
next?


xoj ciil-gan con-nu us dolgan-di-r
many gathered-PST people-ACC 3 go.around-CAUS-PF

deerigle-es-ti[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII],
run.around-SS-GEN
319. down for the foot in the Songu mountain to shoot (them),
don't you say?


caa! moorej=daa egele-en
okay competition=EMPH begin-PST
156. "Everybody will wrestle shirtless (15) along with naked
tomorrow!"


onu di[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]na-p-kas, boktu-kiris
that hear-PERF-SS B-K