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The groups were well matched in terms of age, sex, and severity of symptoms. Intention to treat analysis was carried out for primary endpoint. When the composite primary endpoint of treatment failure was considered, a non-significant difference was reported: 15 patients failed treatment in the TXA group and 20 in the placebo group. The authors go on to describe an unplanned subgroup analysis (excluding patients with hiatus hernia or oesophageal varices �C a barium meal was carried out on survivors) in which they report a statistically significant (p? http://www.selleckchem.com/products/jnj-42756493-erdafitinib.html of TXA. They report that it is well absorbed via the oral route despite concurrent https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ALPI UGIB. Author��s final discussion recommends TXA for bleeding distal to the gastroesophageal junction �C to be confirmed by gastroscopy prior to initiation of treatment. The authors report that the trial was industry sponsored. 2. Engqvist et al. (1979): Tranexamic acid in massive haemorrhage from the upper gastrointestinal tract: a double blind study This study was published in 1979, four years after study��s completion.23 This single-centre study (Stockholm) of intensive care patients was conducted over 15?months: 1974�C5. Patients required a history of haematemesis and/or melaena with defined measurable signs of circulatory ��embarrassment�� to be included in the trial. Patients were excluded http://www.selleckchem.com/products/xmu-mp-1.html with either a history of thromboembolism or renal disease. It is not clear if consecutive patients were recruited or assessed for eligibility. Restricted randomisation was used to ensure equal distribution of males and females. Patients received either TXA in intensive care at 1?g 4hrly IV (maximum three days) and then on ward 1.5?g 6hrly (maximum four days) or an equivalent IV or oral placebo. Primary or secondary endpoints are not defined in the methodology. Of 204 patients entering the study, many (55) were excluded on the basis of only minor bleeding or having not received therapy according to the protocol. Intention to treat analysis was not performed. Of patients analysed, 76 received TXA and 73 placebo. The investigators found a lower rate of continued bleeding, operations, and deaths in the TXA group; none of these achieved statistical significance. 3. Biggs et al. (1976): Tranexamic acid and upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage �C a double blind trial This single centre Australian study recruited consecutive patients presenting to the EC with confirmed symptoms of UGIB �C a witnessed episode or positive gastric aspirate.24 Patients not admitted to the hospital, those who were pregnant, had chronic renal impairment, vascular surgery, or a thromboembolic event in the preceding 12?months were excluded.