Dr. Shapiro completed his undergraduate education at UC San Diego, earning a B.S. in Biochemistry and Cell Biology, and a B.A. in Political Science. He furthered his education at UCLA where he earned a Masters Degree in Public…
Vaccine Exemptions and the Loss of Herd Immunity
Posted in ADHD / ADD by Dr. Jeremy F. Shapiro on Mar 29, 2009

I was all set to sit down and begin my multi-blog discussion regarding cord blood when I came across an article in the front page of the Los Angeles Times today that has delayed my plans once again.  Now I've certainly written quite a bit about vaccinations over this past year and sure many already realize my viewpoint when it comes to our children and vaccines, but no matter one's position here, I feel a responsibility to share some of the key points of this rather interesting article.

Applauding the authors' efforts, what they did is simply accumulate kindergarten vaccination rates from both public and private schools in California.  Now keep in mind, with California schools (as each state has its own laws) all that is basically needed for a vaccine exemption is a parental/guardian signature.  And despite the medical evidence finding no link between autism and its related disorders and vaccines (please feel free to refer to my earlier blogs for more details), exemptions from vaccines have risen more than two-fold in California since 1997.  This translates to more than 10,000 kindergartners entering their first day of school last fall not having the fully recommended number of vaccines.  And even though this may only represent 2% of kindergartners statewide, further analysis showed that those with vaccines exemptions were often enrolled at the same schools...often in the more affluent communities, interestingly enough.

And herein lies the greatest concern...having a community (such as a school) where 5%-10% of the population is not vaccinated allows for spreading of these diseases more quickly as there is a loss of herd immunity.  Simply put, this is how epidemics evolve...such as the measles cases in San Diego early last year.  Furthermore, while using 7.5% as the threshold, the authors' discovered 1 in 11 elementary schools in California are at risk of outbreaks from one of the many vaccine preventable diseases.

And my two cents?  Well, not only am I disappointed but I'm also quite scared.  I'm scared for your child, my child, and the child next door as I'm concerned these epidemics will only increase in frequency and in greater numbers over the next few years.  Unfortunately, this is probably the only way the pendulum will swing in favor of vaccinating more consistently once again.

For those who would like to read article in its entirety, here is the link...,0,3148179.story.


Dr. Jeremy

       Send to a Friend     Share This

TOTAL COMMENTS: 42 - View All Comments »

Add a Comment
Displaying comments 42-23 of 42
42 docs/AutismRepor t_2007.pdf

From 1987 to 2007, the number of people with ASD grew 1,148 percent,

> PAY CLOSE ATTENTION! They are now openly advocating the promotion of vaccines through fear!
> "One promising tactic is "social marketing" that promotes immunization based on emotion, rather than medicine's traditional reliance on scientific evidence and authority".
> "Once physicians overcome parents' hesitancy, advancing the schedule of dosing may further improve vaccine protection, according to two studies.
> In one retrospective cohort study, reducing the interval between doses increased the number of children who got the full immunization regimen"
> Novel Strategies to Keep Kids on Vaccination Track
> By Crystal Phend, Staff Writer, MedPage Today
> Published: May 05, 2009
> Reviewed by Robert Jasmer, MD; Associate Clinical Professor of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco
> SAN FRANCISCO, May 5 -- Childhood immunization may be a victim of its own success, requiring guerilla tactics to get kids in for vaccination and keep them coming back, advocates say.
> Vaccination has virtually eliminated some diseases, such as measles, that once killed thousands of children each year, said Matthew M. Davis, M.D., of the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor, and Samir S. Shah, M.D., of Children's Hospital of Philadelphia.
> But the very rarity of these diseases today makes it easier for parents to dismiss the risk -- and give greater weight to the potential adverse effects of vaccination, they wrote in the May issue of Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine.
> Their editorial highlighted several studies in a vaccination- themed journal issue designed to "set the stage for the next phase" in the fight against vaccine-preventable infections.
> Action Points
> Explain to interested patients that part of the hesitation of parents to vaccinate their children is because of lack of perceived risk of vaccine-preventable disease due to virtual elimination of these diseases.
> Note that all the vaccines scheduled for age 2 months can be given at 6 weeks.
> One promising tactic is "social marketing" that promotes immunization based on emotion, rather than medicine's traditional reliance on scientific evidence and authority.
> The authors say it can counter publicity from antivaccination forces who blame vaccinations for heartbreaking stories of children who develop autism or other problems.
> Other strategies highlighted in the journal included:
> Advancing the schedule of dosing to encourage parents to bring children in sooner
> Pediatric office-based immunization of adults who have contact with young children
> A reminder/recall system at pediatric practices to track immunization among high-risk children and help ensure they receive immunizations during times of vaccine shortage
> Effective communication, to improve uptake of new vaccines-especially those with cultural sensitivities, such as the human papillomavirus vaccine
> Sustained routine vaccination to maintain progress against disparities in vaccine-preventable diseases among American Indian and Alaskan Native children
> Social Marketing to Fight Antivaccination Publicity
> While unconventional, emotion-based marketing gets at the roots of "immunization hesitancy," according to researchers led by Douglas J. Opel, M.D., of Seattle Children's Hospital and the University of Washington in Seattle.
> For example, they noted that heartbreaking individual stories of autism -- purportedly linked to vaccinations -- can be more compelling in swaying public opinion against vaccination than careful scientific studies of large populations of children.
> "Multiple studies have found that a compelling story about a single victim is far more likely to move an audience to action than is the use of data," Dr. Opel's group wrote.
> So to fight fire with fire, their group described an approach planned by the Washington State Department of Health to increase the state's immunization rate, currently 46th among the states for the standard, 15-dose series.
> The social marketing campaign will focus on parents who are expecting or have a child under 24 months old and are unsure whether to immunize their youngsters, or are intentionally delaying immunizations for nonmedical reasons.
> Because concerned parents may value empathy, openness, and perceived honesty over medical expertise, the campaign will publicize the experience of a parent whose hesitation to vaccinate led to a child's serious illness with a vaccine-preventable disease.
> If possible, it will also include "a recognizable, respected public figure who has personal life experience with vaccine-preventable disease and is willing to advocate for immunization. "
> Bringing children back sooner for repeat doses
> Once physicians overcome parents' hesitancy, advancing the schedule of dosing may further improve vaccine protection, according to two studies.
> In one retrospective cohort study, reducing the interval between doses increased the number of children who got the full immunization regimen, and Daniel Bronson-Lowe, Ph.D., and Shoana M. Anderson, M.P.H., both of Arizona Department of Health Services in Phoenix, reported.
> They reviewed the Arizona immunization registry for more than 45,000 children who got their initial diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP) dose during a statewide pertussis outbreak.
> Despite concerns over increasing the number of well-child visits and disrupting other vaccination schedules, reducing the DTaP interval to less than the standard eight weeks improved immunization rates compared with standard dosing as follows:
> 34% higher likelihood of all three DTaP doses (95% confidence interval 32% to 35%)
> 27% higher likelihood of all three doses of inactivated polio vaccine (95% CI 25% to 29%)
> 37% higher likelihood of all three doses of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (95% CI 35% to 39%)
> In an editorial, Dr. Shah noted some of the increase in completion rate may have been attributed to parents who saw the risks of nonvaccination more clearly during the outbreak.
> But he said noted that that other vaccines typically given at 2 months can be administered at 6 weeks as well.
> Indeed, a second retrospective cohort study found that starting pneumococcal conjugate vaccination at 6 weeks of age rather than the standard 2 months could be expected to prevent even more disease.
> Katherine A. Poehling, M.D., M.P.H., of Wake Forest University in Winston-Salem, N.C., and colleagues studied rates of pneumococcus before pneumococcal conjugate vaccine introduction in eight states.
> They projected that earlier administration would reduce invasive pneumococcal disease in infants between 6 weeks and 2 months of age by 39.9% if the vaccine efficacy was 50%, and reduce the incidence by 56.0% and 72.1% at efficacies of 70% and 90%.
> "As research for new and more effective vaccines continues, medical personnel must optimize the way they use existing vaccines," Drs. Davis and Shah concluded.
> Drs. Davis and Shah reported no conflicts of interest.
> One of Dr. Opel's co-authors reported owning a social marketing consulting firm, Social Marketing Services, Inc.
> Dr. Bronson-Lowe and Anderson's study was supported by a grant from the CDC. They reported no conflicts of interest.
> Dr. Poehling's study was supported by awards from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and by research funds from Roche and Wyeth to one of the co-authors. They reported no conflicts of interest.
> Primary source: Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine
> Source reference:
> Davis MM, Shah SS "Necessary innovations in immunization delivery" Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2009; 163: 483-85.
> Additional source: Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine
> Source reference:
> Opel DJ, et al "Social marketing as a strategy to increase immunization rates" Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2009; 163: 432-37.
> Additional source: Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine
> Source reference:
> Stancil JM, et al "Potential impact of accelerating the primary dose of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in infants" Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2009; 163: 422-25.
> Bronson-Lowe D, Anderson SM "Effects of a minimum interval immunization schedule for diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis vaccination during a pertussis outbreak" Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2009; 163: 417-21.
> Find this article at:
> http://www.medpaget Pediatrics/ Vaccines/ 14044

GUIDE TO INTERPRETING CASE REPORT INFORMATION OBTAINED FROM THE VACCINE ADVERSE EVENT REPORTING SYSTEM (VAERS) When evaluating data from VAERS, it is important to note that for any reported event, no cause and effect relationship has been established. VAERS is interested in all potential associations between vaccines and adverse events. Therefore, VAERS collects data on any adverse event following vaccination, be it coincidental or truly caused by a vaccine. The report of an adverse event to VAERS is not documentation that a vaccine caused the event.

VAERS data contains coincidental events and those truly caused by vaccines.
Over ten million vaccinations per year are given to children less than one year old, usually between 2 months and 6 months of age. At this age, infants are at greatest risk for certain medical events, including high fevers, seizures, and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Some infants will by coincidence experience such an event shortly after a vaccination.
These coincidences make it difficult to know whether a particular adverse event resulted from a concurrent condition or from a vaccination. Therefore, doctors and other vaccine providers are encouraged to report all adverse events following vaccinations, whether or not they believe that the vaccination was the cause.
VAERS data have a number of limitations you should remember:
VAERS data are derived from a passive surveillance system and represent unverified reports of health events, both minor and serious, that occur after vaccination.
In certain cases VAERS requests additional information from reporters, healthcare providers and other parties. The status, event description and medical codes associated with a report are subject to change upon receipt of such additional information.
When multiple reports of a single case or event are received, only the first report received is included in the publicly accessible dataset. Subsequent reports may contain additional or conflicting data, and there is no assurance that the data provided in the public dataset is the most accurate or current available.
Such data are subject to limitations of under-reporting, simultaneous administration of multiple vaccine antigens (making it difficult to know to which of the vaccines, if any, the event might be attributed), reporting bias, and lack of incidence rates in unvaccinated comparison groups.
While some events reported to VAERS are truly caused by vaccines, others may be related to an underlying disease or condition, to medications being taken concurrently, or may occur by chance.
VAERS occasionally receives case reports from US manufacturers that were reported to their foreign subsidiaries. Under FDA regulations, if a manufacturer is notified of a foreign case report that describes an event that is both serious and unexpected (in other words, it does not appear in the product labeling), they are required to submit it to VAERS. It is important to realize that these case reports are of variable data quality and completeness, due to the many differences in country reporting practices and surveillance system quality. For this reason they are provided as separate files.
In some media reports and on some web sites on the Internet, VAERS reports are presented as verified cases of vaccine deaths and injuries. Statements such as these misrepresent the nature of the VAERS surveillance system.
The coding of VAERS reports also requires careful interpretation.
All narrative text taken from VAERS reports are coded and entered into the VAERS database using the Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA), which are key words representing medical condition(s) described in the case report.
Establishing causal relationships between vaccines and adverse events requires additional scientific investigation.
The CDC and FDA take into account the complex factors mentioned above, and others, when monitoring vaccine safety and analyzing VAERS reports.
The purpose of VAERS is to detect possible signals of adverse events associated with vaccines. Additional scientific investigations are almost always required to properly validate signals from VAERS and establish a cause and effect relationship between a vaccine and an adverse event.
For example, potential concerns raised by VAERS are investigated through a CDC project called the Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD). VSD is a large-linked database and includes information on more than six million people, allowing for planned vaccine safety studies as well as timely investigations of hypotheses.
I have read and understand the preceding statement.

For additional information, please call VAERS toll-free 1-800-822-7967 or e-mail

Back to Home

SO what you Donna are saying is that it is unlikely that there could be any adverse vaccine reaction (including Autism).... then why do you suppose there is a compensation fund? Check out California's latest report on the increased number of cases of Autism.... California is no exception to the rule, all States have the same vaccine schedule as California, they simply do not have the same reporting or studies available..... Educated yourself please
By challenger  May 05, 2009
Why is the CDC involved in Autism, it is a disease? is it contagious?
By SigS  May 04, 2009
Not convinced yet that vaccines cause autism, but have no issue with them exaccerbating mild autism. Some children with autism are reknowned for their senstivity to chemicals and their enviroment. Don't see an issue with the premise that preservatives, previously Thimersol(mercury) in the MMR and other chemicals have caused severe adverse reactions. My own personal experience and shared stories from others with autism in relation to severe adverse side effects to psychotropic medications. People with autism in my view have heightened sensetivities to enviromental factor, such as, chemicals.

Don't believe any rational person would want their child or put any other persons child at risk of contracting measels, chicken pox or diptheria. I certainly understand the fear from parents with so much misinformation from both sides on the debate.

Totally agree with the suggestion that pharmaceutical companies will and have acted without integrity or care for the consumer. They are profit driven first and foremost. I cringe everytime I'm in a Doctors surgery and the representative from the multi nation drug company arrives with their 30 pieces of silver. I support my inference with a link to an article admonishing a drug company and its practices in pushing a drug off topic for profit.
By Rigil13  Apr 09, 2009
Oh just something I found really interesting, thought I would pass it along.
By DeniseDies  Apr 07, 2009
I dont remember attacking anyone personally. I thought this was a rational, adult discussion. My first link posted was from CDC not youtube. I also think you will find Ben Goldacre on this broadcast a good authority.

Never mind I shall not go further as I do not wish to provoke anymore hysteria.

Oh and sorry for not taking the time to fill out my profile, I shall get straight to it.

Donna Page nobody (but my real name)
By DonnaPage  Apr 07, 2009
So Donna page if you are such an authority, why are you here? You are nobody....Your profile is blank....

You are just a mean and ignorant person. The REAL authorities admit they are not sure what causes ASD... and there is no proof that vaccine injury is not valid. What sets off the predisposition? Ah a vaccine? Anything is possible.
Oh and where is the research? You tube is not a valid resource for science. Mean and cold hearted people are the problem, not vaccines.
By Olismom  Apr 07, 2009
Your comment Vaccinations do not cause autism.... Really hits home for me because I have a child that IS vaccine Damaged. Have you read any of the reports about Hanna Polling? She was also vaccination damaged. maybe you could check that out. Like I have said previously unless you actually live this you will never understand it and I don't expect you to but I do expect you to understand that there is a plausable link. In regards to Autism not being an epidemic do you work for the CDC because they have declared autism an epidemic not me. Also maybe go check out a preschool disabled class where they are filled to capacity. I know more children with ASD than aspergers also. OMT, if you have so much faith in the vaccines than why are you so worried about my child not being vaccinated should not have any effect on your child. The only disservie I did do was to was to vaccinate my child and have faith in the vaccination schedule. The vaccinations should be spaced out if they are given not to be given the way they are. Maybe you should check out the vaccination support group where people have actually lost their children due vaccinations. Ask them what they think about this hot topic.
By DeniseDies  Apr 07, 2009
I can see you feel very passionate about this subject as I am. Firstly autism is not epidemic, that is a common misunderstanding. The diagnostic criteria changed in the early 90's which meant previously undiaognosed cases that were on the 'waterline' of autism started to be pick up. Also it wasnt until then that Aspergers was discovered. This does not make an epidemic, it just means our knowledge had advanced to pick up the acute cases in children/adults who may were just thought to be 'slow' in their development.
If you read the research and have an even small understanding on the brain you will see that autism is a pre-disposition and, in my opinion, if this not understood then a dis-service is being done to the autistic child. More and more progress is being made on understanding the brain and its functions.There is some fabulous research out there which can help improve the the quality of life for anyone with autism.

Vaccinations do not cause autism. There is sufficient research to disprove this link. Read the link I posted previously. There is, however, scientific research to prove the increase on childhood diseases and the deaths from them since the wave of anti-vaccinators.

My chossing to vaccinate will not impact on your childs health. You choosing not to could potentially impact on my childs health.

You seem to presume that autism is in my extended family? If so, why would it make this issue any less important to me?
By DonnaPage  Apr 07, 2009
Well, all I can say is that to vaccinate a child should be the parents choice. My question to all of the parents that are "pro" vaccinations,"why are you all so worried your children are protected?" I can say that my son was doing perfectly fine until his 12 month vaccinations and then a flu shot added to the mix is recipe for disaster. I feel that everyone should do what is write for their child and if you want to vaccinate then that is your choice and I am by no means saying that you are wrong. My question is why am I wrong for not choosing too? Why because you don't agree with my decision for my children? Too bad!!!! Everyone does what they think is write. I did ask my pediatrician if I vaccinated my second son could she tell me that 100% he could not get autism from the vaccinations and she told me NO!!! So it is a personal decision and for some it is a religious belief. One more thing, autism does not just occur from a pre-disposition. If that were the case then why is it an epidemic? Also, autism is now in my family I am the first person in my family and my husbands to have children with autism. No one understands autism better than a parent and believe me while I am tucking in my children at night I am reminded of that every single night. I love my children with all my heart but I wonder what they would be right now if autism hadn't come into my direct family.... not extended family but MY family.
By DeniseDies  Apr 06, 2009
And fair enough Doc.

An informed (and fair) opinion cannot be formed without looking at both sides of an issue equally and without prejudice. Can't speak for anyone else but I only seek to learn and understand why this is such a hotly contested issue when vaccination seems such a logical step to take.

If this has caused any undue disruption, then I apologise.
By RAAFBrat  Apr 05, 2009
Here's a link to the CDC study from last year for maru (comment 15)

"Among those measles cases reported during the first 7 months of 2008, 76% were in persons aged <20 years, and 91% were in persons who were unvaccinated or of unknown vaccination status. Of the 131 cases, 89% were imported from or associated with importations from other countries, particularly countries in Europe, where several outbreaks are ongoing (3,4). The findings demonstrate that measles outbreaks can occur in communities with a high number of unvaccinated persons and that maintaining high overall measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccination coverage rates in the United States is needed to continue to limit the spread of measles. "
By DonnaPage  Apr 05, 2009
My children are vaccinated and I am very much from the pro-vaccination side of the camp. I get sick of hearing about the rights of parents choice not to vaccinate. What about the rights of every child? Why should others rights infringe on mine and theirs? 'Herd immunisation' is there for a reason and we are falling dangerously close to the effectivness of this being reduced by parents choosing not to vaccinate. There is scientific evidence in abundance to prove safety and effectiveness of vaccines. There is also plenty of evidence to dis-prove the link between vaccinations and autism. There is a huge knee-jerk reaction happening due to the incorrect media/celeb storm that is currently playing out. People with no education in science and one-sided arguements.
When 'herd immunisation' is broken not only do once forgotten diseases re-emerge but they mutate making them much harder to treat, cure and eradicate. We have come so far in science that there should be gratiude, yes a certain element skeptisim: as there should be with all science and scientists would agree, but not this unnecessary fear.

Yes Dr Jeremy we should be scared because death and disability borne out of ignorance is a very sad thing.

One last thing, I have autism in my family, it did not occur from vaccinations. Autism is a pre-disposition.
By DonnaPage  Apr 05, 2009
ok so share the "research"
Oh and where are the vaccines for the current virus that everyone has?

You need not fear or pity my children... they are vaccinated... I just worry for the babies yet to be injured by doctors unwilling to discuss verbally what is not exactly what they are willing to believe and discuss.
By Olismom  Apr 05, 2009
Hello All,
I do appreciate everyone bringing their opinion to the table regarding this topic. I'd also be happy to share the research I base my decisions on in my own office and it should be known I do work with my families on a vaccine schedule as long as their is a willingness to vaccinate (even though I haven't come across research to justify this approach). But what I will not engage in is a verbal exchange to further any hostility about this matter.

Dr. Jeremy
By DrJeremy  Apr 04, 2009
No, no, I understand quite well. I said the "concept" of vaccinations, not the "reality". Sorry but I like to differentiate between the two. I turned down chemotherapy for the same reason - because it is toxic and, according to all of my own research, can itself cause secondary cancers up to fifteen years later.

From what I have read here, folks cannot trust the source of vaccinations nowadays - because of the ingredient list and information connecting them to adverse reactions (some severe). Thing is that anything can be toxic, not just vaccinations. I've known people who have reacted badly to something as simple and necessary as Vitamin C. It's a precarious world, so why deliberately subject yourself to something that is known to be toxic right?

The concept of vaccinations is still sound. Homeopathy, a natural therapy, uses a similar theory to that of vaccinations. Small increments to build a resistence and using like to fight like. Medicine is using the theory now for children with allergies to peanuts but there is (as always) a difference between theory (or concept) and reality.

I still believe in the concept of vaccination as a prevention to worse things but this has been an interesting learning experience. What exactly are those toxic ingredients and why are they included in vaccinations? According to my knowledge vaccinations began with the smallpox vaccine Ė when whatís his name noticed that those who had been exposed to cowpox (ie: milkmaids) did not get smallpox. From there the first vaccination was born back in the year dot. Last I heard, admittedly a long time ago, vaccinations were a microdose of the disease itself that would cause the body to create itís own anti-bodies, therefore resistence, to the disease itself. When did they start putting in extraneous ingredients? Can you please provide a link or two that I can read?

And I think you're right - fruits, vegetables and vitamins cannot be patented.

I'd also like to hear from the doc on this too.
By RAAFBrat  Apr 03, 2009
continuing last comment....
I will be sure that MY CHILD'S immune system is developed and prepared to handle these vaccinations.
By naturerin  Apr 03, 2009
There may not be a link between vaccines and autism in studies, but just ask a parent with an autistic child what they think. Most will tell you there is a link SOMEWHERE, SOMEHOW. The parent knows that child more than anyone, more than the doctor. WHY does the medical profession, the CDC, etc not take a look at the vaccination SCHEDULE? We are bombarding a very young immune system with dozens of vaccines. The number of vaccines given has increased dramatically over the years, and the epidemic of autism has increased along with it. Why should a newborn need to a Heb B vaccine immediately after birth? Spread the vaccination schedule out; treat each child as an individual. Look at the child's risks instead of following a standardized vaccine schedule regardless of the situation. I am not against vaccinations, but i know that MY CHILD will not be vaccinated on the day of birth. I will be sure that
By naturerin  Apr 03, 2009
I don't think you've read the comments very thoroughly. Vaccinations have toxic ingredients and have not been proven to work, and actually do harm to a lot of the population. It's not just a general mistrust of the medical profession.I'm not into conspiracy theories either, but do believe there's a lot of money to be made on vaccinations.
Is there a chance the doctor will address the comments made on his article?
By BeckySy  Apr 02, 2009
Hmmm ... well, this is very interesting. I still believe that vaccinations are important however, reading all that has been said to date on this subject, it would seem to me that the problem isn't necessarily the concept of vaccination itself but falls instead in the direction of the general populations mis-trust of the medical profession today. That part I do have to agree with. I'm not into "conspiracy theories". I'm sure they exist, they just don't especially interest me. On the other hand this is one that I have been forced to question. Iíve heard from too many others on the subject to ignore it and my own cancer was misdiagnosed three times by the medical profession who thought I was just over-reacting (lucky Iím so damn stubborn).

It looks to me that what is being said is that many of you might consider vaccinating your children IF you felt that you could trust the source of those vaccinations?
By RAAFBrat  Apr 02, 2009

PAGE:  < Previous  |  1  |   2  |   3  |   Next >
Got a Question?
My Fans
(4,011 Discussion Topics)
(1,645 Discussion Topics)
Asperger Syndrome
(2,529 Discussion Topics)
Autism / Autism Spectrum
(5,257 Discussion Topics)
(1,725 Discussion Topics)
Chicken Pox
(3 Discussion Topics)
Child Support & Custody
(1,574 Discussion Topics)
Family Issues
(4,001 Discussion Topics)
Gay Parenting
(158 Discussion Topics)
Grandparents Raising Children
(3,335 Discussion Topics)
(129 Discussion Topics)
(27 Discussion Topics)
Military Families
(1,340 Discussion Topics)
Parenting 'Tweens (9-12)
(683 Discussion Topics)
Parenting Big Kids (5-8)
(941 Discussion Topics)
Parenting Newborns & Infants (0-1)
(4,213 Discussion Topics)
Parenting Preschoolers (3-5)
(1,180 Discussion Topics)
Parenting Teenagers (12-18)
(1,628 Discussion Topics)
Parenting Toddlers (1-3)
(2,829 Discussion Topics)
Parents of Children with ADHD
(1,696 Discussion Topics)
(11,006 Discussion Topics)
Pregnancy - Teens
(1,451 Discussion Topics)
Pregnancy After Loss/Infertility
(7,662 Discussion Topics)
Premature Birth
(194 Discussion Topics)
Single Dads
(280 Discussion Topics)
Single Parenting
(1,418 Discussion Topics)
Step Families
(1,661 Discussion Topics)
Trying To Conceive
(3,409 Discussion Topics)
Twins, Triplets & More
(1,517 Discussion Topics)