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ADHD / ADD Information

  • Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurologic syndrome that exhibits symptoms such as hyperactivity, forgetfulness, mood shifts, poor impulse control, and distractibility, when judged to be chronic, as symptoms of a neurological pathology. It is seen in both children and adults and is believed to affect as much as 10% of the population...
  • Much controversy surrounds the diagnosis. There is disagreement over whether or not the diagnosis denotes a genuine disability or simply serves as a label for something else. Of those who believe that ADHD is a true disorder, there is debate over how it should be treated, if it should be treated at all. Medical science generally regards ADHD to be a valid disorder, that, although not curable, can be treated with a wide range of medication.

    ADHD is most commonly diagnosed in children. When diagnosed in adults, it is regarded as adult attention-deficit disorder (AADD). It is believed that anywhere between 30 to 70% of children diagnosed with ADHD retain the disorder as adults.

    There are many options available to treat people diagnosed with ADHD. The options with the greatest scientific support include a variety of medications, behavior-changing therapies, and educational interventions.

    The first-line medication used to treat ADHD are mostly stimulants, which work by stimulating the areas of the brain responsible for focus, attention, and impulse control. The use of stimulants to treat a syndrome often characterized by hyperactivity is sometimes referred to as a paradoxical effect. But there is no real paradox in that stimulants activate brain inhibitory and self-organizing mechanisms permitting the individual to have greater self-regulation.

    Methylphenidate - Available in: a) Regular formulation, sold as Ritalin, Metadate, Focalin, or Methylin. Duration: 4-6 hours per dose. Usually taken morning, lunchtime, and in some cases, afternoon. b) Long acting formulation, sold as Ritalin SR, Metadate ER. Duration: 6-8 hours per dose. Usually taken twice daily. c)All-day formulation, sold as Ritalin LA, Metadate CD, Concerta (Methylphenidate Hydrochloride), Focalin XR. Duration: 10-12 hours per dose. Usually taken once a day.

    Amphetamines:

    * Dextroamphetamine - Available in: a) Regular formulation, sold as Dexedrine. Duration: 4-6 hours per dose. Usually taken 2-3 times daily. b) Long-acting formulation, sold as Dexedrine Spansules. Duration: 8-12 hours per dose. Taken once a day.
    * Adderall, a trade name for a mixture of dextroamphetamine and laevoamphetamine salts. Available in: a) Regular formulation, Adderall. Duration: 4-6 hours a dose. b) Long-acting formulation, Adderall XR. Duration: 12 hours. Taken once a day.
    * Methamphetamine - Available in regular formulation, sold as Desoxyn by Ovation Pharmaceutical Company. Banned in the US because of the abuse potential.

    Bupropion. A dopamine and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, marketed under the brand name Wellbutrin.

    Atomoxetine. A norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (NRI) introduced in 2003, it is the newest class of drug used to treat ADHD, and the first non-stimulant medication to be used as a first-line treatment for ADHD. Available in once daily formulation, sold by Eli Lilly and Company as Strattera. This medicine doesn't have an exact duration. It is to be taken once or twice a day, depending on the individual, every day, and takes up to 6 weeks to begin working fully. If the intake schedule is interrupted, it may take a few weeks to begin working correctly again.

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View Top ADHD/ADD Answers at sharecare.com

Health Blogs

The age at which kids can receive a diagnosis of ADHD has decreased significantly since I began working in the field of psychology. Many years ago the practice of labeling a preschooler with any diagnosis was pretty rare. Some may say that there were many missed opportunities for treatment because of this delay and while it is true that early ... Read More »
Earlier this summer, I wrote an article here on DailyStrength about the concerns of arsenic in apple juice after the Food & Drug Administration (FDA) did some specific investigation into this matter. ... Read More »
Adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is a common and treatable psychiatric condition, but diagnosis poses a challenge in adults because ADHD looks much different in adults than in children. If the number of folks who take surveys in popular magazines and think they have ADHD really did we’d be in trouble. A recent landmark national ... Read More »

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